# Discoveries in Natural Science {©}

Some of Keith Dixon-Roche's discoveries in natural science (physics), all of which are protected by international copyright laws © 2017 to 2023, are summarised below. All of the mathematical and logical evidence is published in his various books (see our 'Books' menu) for all to see and challenge.

CalQlata has tried and failed to dispute their voracity, and apart from the inevitable unsubstantiated angry complaints from academia (Keith Dixon-Roche is an engineer, not a scientist), nobody is willing to even try to disprove them or even listen to him.

In order to generate some interest in today's industry, media, government and academia all of whom appear to be deaf to new ideas and theories; CalQlata is offering a valuable gift, to anybody (not just from academia) who can invalidate any one of Keith's claims;
if anybody can provide the same level of mathematical and logical evidence (as he provides in his books) to disprove any one of his discoveries, we will give that individual a free single-license to every calculator we have on sale today.

## 1) Isaac Newton's Gravitational Constant (G)

G = aₒ.c²/mN = 6.67359232004334E-11 {m³ / s².kg}
and his force formula is:
F = G.m₁.m₂ / R²
However, due to the conservation of energy; magnetic (gravitational) force behaves like electro-magnetic energy, it does not diminish with distance, it is distributed over the spherical area at 'R', Newton's formula should therefore be:
F = G.m₁.m₂ / A
where; A = 4.π.R²
and his constant should be:
G = 4.π.aₒ.c²/mN = 8.38628344228057E-10 {m³ / s².kg}

## 2) Mass is Magnetic Charge

Mass is the collective non-polar magnetic charge (see 4) below) in all the atomic particles in all matter.

## 3) Gravity is Magnetism

Gravity is the attractive magnetic force between the magnetic charge (see 2) above) in two or more bodies.

## 4) Magnetic Charge (m)

Because electrical charge and magnetic charge are essential converses (see 6) below);
m = 1.60217648753E-19 ? (units to be established {e.g. the Gilbert})
Magnetic charge is present in all atomic particles (see 21) below), constant and accrued.

## 5) Electrical Charge (e)

e = 1.60217648753E-19 C
Electrical charge is present in all atomic particles (see 21) below), constant (see 23) below) and shared.

## 6) Electrical Charge and Magnetic Charge are Essential Converses

Every electrical charge has an equal and opposite magnetic charge (see 21) below).

## 7) Spin Theory

The spin in all bodies (atomic and celestial) is generated by orbital kinetic and potential energy between force-centres and their satellites:
E₂ = E₁ - E₀ - E₃
where:
E₀ = satellite's angular energy due to its own orbit; E₀ = ½.J.ωₒ.|ωₒ|
ωₒ = 2π/tₒ; tₒ = orbital period
E₁ = angular kinetic energy in its force-centre; E₁ = δKE.(r/R)²
δKE = KEᴾ-KEᴬ; KE in satellite; r = satellite radius; R = average orbital radius
E₂ = total satellite angular energy
E₃ = the sum of the kinetic energies in its own sub-satellites; E₃ = sign(cos(θ)).(ΣKEᴾ+ΣPEᴬ)
KE & PE in sub-satellite(s)

## 8) Core Pressure

The internal pressure in any mass is defined by the formula:
p = G.m₁.m₂ / R².A
m₁ ; the mass inside 'r'
m₂ ; the mass outside 'r'
A ; the spherical area at 'r' (A = 4.π.r²)
r ; the radius at which the internal pressure is defined

## 9) Galactic Force-Centres

Every satellite must have a force-centre (Isaac Newton). Therefore, every spiral galaxy must have a force-centre.
Galactic force-centres are dark (they emit exceptionally low levels of EME) because they are cold, which is because they are not in orbit (see 14) below); therefore they cannot generate internal heat.
The Milky Way's galactic force-centre has been defined thus: Hades.
The presence of Hades, means that there is no more need for dark matter or black holes.

## 10) Centripetal Force in Elliptical Orbits (F)

Fₑ = m.vₛ²/R (elliptical centrifugal force)
α = √[⁴/₃.π]
κ = √[ (ƒ.Sin(½.θ)ᵅ + p.Cos(½.θ)ᵅ) / (ƒ.Cos(½.θ)ᵅ + p.Sin(½.θ)ᵅ) ]
v = κ.vₛ (radial (actual) centrifugal velocity)
F = m.v²/R; radial (actual) centrifugal force
@ orbital perigee; F = Fₑ.ƒ/p = Fₑ/(1+e)
@ orbital apogee; F = Fₑ.p/ƒ = Fₑ.(1+e)
m ; satellite mass
R ; orbital separation between satellite and force-centre @ 'θ'
vₛ ; satellite orbital velocity @ 'θ'
θ ; orbital angle of satellite from apogee
ƒ ; focus distance between satellite and perigee
p ; orbital half parameter
e ; orbital eccentricity

## 11) Station Keeping

Newton's constant of motion (h) is responsible for ensuring that a satellite attracted (by magnetism - see 3) above) by a neighbouring satellite will never leave its orbit; where g = a:
as a satellite is pulled away from its force-centre, g > a
as a satellite is pulled towards its force-centre, a > g
g ; gravitational acceleration
a ; centrifugal acceleration
The gravitational attraction between neighbouring satellites simply induces orbital torque. Therefore, as satellites pass close to each other, their gravitational forces simply rotate their orbital axes.

## 12) Orbital Constant of Proportionality (K)

Isaac Newton: K = t²/a³
Keith Dixon-Roche: K = (2.π)² / G.m₁
t ; satellite orbital period
a ; half the orbital major axis
m₁ ; force-centre mass

## 13) Orbital Partnerships (Goodricke & Algol)

Once established, a force-centre/satellite partnership will continue (eternally), even in the event the satellite is destroyed (e.g. an asteroid belt), until (or unless) the satellite is forcibly removed.
A non-atomic force-centre can trap numerous satellites, but it will not share them.
Binary star systems cannot exist. Only one of the bright bodies can be a force-centre, the other must be a satellite that has accummulated sufficient sub-satellite mass to generate fissionable energy.
A proton will only attract and hold onto a single orbiting electron because electricity is shared and an electron's electrical charge is constant. This orbital partnership shall continue eternally, even when fused within an atom, unless the electron is forcibly removed (by impact or potential energy {potential difference}).

## 14) Planetary [heat] Energy

Competing spin energies (see 7) above) generate internal heat in a satellite through friction between its core (potential energy) and its mantle (kinetic energy).
A satellite with sub-satellites will generate considerably more internal heat energy than a satellite with none.
A satellite with a relatively large sub-satellite population will generate sufficient internal frictional heat to melt its crust (gas planets); these satellites tend to be furthest from the gravitational influence of their force-center.
Large gas-satellites may occasionally collect sufficient sub-satellite mass to generate fission in their core atoms, making them bright. These planets are today mistakenly referred to as one of a binary star (there are no such things as binary stars).
A force-centre that is not also a satellite (e.g. a galactic force-centre) will generate no internal heat energy; it will be cold.

## 15) Stellar [heat] Energy

A stellar force-centre will become bright if it and its satellite population are sufficient massive to generate internal frictional heat through spin to achieve the neutronic temperature (see 34) below) and thereby release fissionable energy in their core atoms.
The by-product of fissionable decay is hydrogen and helium and the reason that stars have an 'H' & 'He' atmosphere that grows in size with age.
The energy radiated by bright stars does not - and cannot - come from fusion.

## 16) Celestial Magnetic Field

Magnetic fields only occur in orbiting force-centres (satellites with a sub-satellite population).
The magnetic field generated by a satellite is caused by the electro-magnetic charges in its mantle-elements orbiting the electro-magnetic charges in its core-elements.
The magnitude of a force-centre's magnetic field is proportional to the product of its own mass and that of its sub-satellite population.

## 17) The 'Big-Bang'

'Big-Bangs' occur because the accreted universal mass at the end of a universal period is sufficient to generate the core pressure necessary to overcome the coupling ratio (see 31) below) and thereby compromise a neutron, which will initiate an atomic chain reaction; releasing neutronic energy (see 22) below).
The energy generated in a 'Big-Bang' is approximately 2.44227452081246E+62 Joules.
The initial velocity of the ejected matter was approximately 1.7722545352256E+06 metres per second.

## 18) The Mass of the Universe

The mass of the universe is that required to overcome the coupling ratio and greater than 4.68687882273807E+48 kg;
which represents more than 2.8005901335366E+75 proton-electron pairs.

## 19) 'The Great Attractor'

'The Great Attractor' is the residual matter that re-accreted after a 'Big-Bang' and is sufficient to slow-down all universal matter travelling away from the 'Big-Bang'.
If the Milky-Way is travelling at 6E+05m/s, the mass of the Great-Attractor must be 2.1428862E+46 kg.
After 'The Great Attractor' re-accretes all universal mass, another 'Big-Bang' will occur and the next universal period will follow.

## 20) The Age of the Universe

All universal periods are ≈64.428 billion years, and we are currently ≈13.5 billion years (20.95%) through the current period.

The entire universe comprises the same matter and has the same age as this [current] universal period to date.
The protein molecules that were responsible for initiating life, were created during a previous universal period, which is why they appear in all universal matter (including comets and meteorites).
The heat in the universal space (2.7255K) is not left over from the last 'Big-Bang', it is the heat radiated by all the stars and planets in the universe.

## 21) Atomic Particles

The only particles required to make the universe work are the electron and the proton.
All electrons are identical and all protons are identical.
A proton's additional magnetic charge allows it to collect and hold onto additional electrical charge (eꞌ) (see 23) below).

## 22) The Neutron

A neutron is a proton-electron pair that has united through high-temperature; which only occurs in the core atoms of bright bodies (see 13) above).
Neutrons are created - and can only exist - within an atom. When a neutron releases its energy, it will do so either as alpha and beta particles, or as EME when it reverts to a proton-electron pair within its parent atom.
Every neutron possesses: 1.63785606465701E-13 Joules of energy.

## 23) The Proton-Electron Pair

A proton with an orbiting electron is the primary universal partnership.
The kinetic energy in the orbiting electron defines its temperature: KE = ½.mₑ.v²
The potential energy between the proton and its orbiting electron defines its ability to fuse (with other atoms): PE = 2.KE (see 29) below)
When the electron is orbiting at the speed of electro-magnetic energy;
PE = mₑ.c² (KE = ½.mₑ.c²) the proton and the electron will unite to become a neutron (see 22) above).
All atoms in the universe comprise collections of proton-electron pairs.

## 24) Atomic strength increases with increasing temperature

The potential energy between a nucleic proton and its orbiting electron increases with electron energy (see 23) above), decreasing electron shell (orbital) radii.

## 25) The Atom (how it works)

All elements are created (through fusion) only in the largest coldest universal bodies; galactic force-centres and 'The Great Attractor' (see 9) and 19) above)
The atom comprises a nucleus of protons and neutrons, orbited by their electron partners in circular shells.
Each electron shell contains two electrons. The outer-most electron shell may contain one or two electrons.
There are no shell valences in an atom.
The magnetic field energy generated by an atom's proton-electron pairs is constant and responsible for attracting adjacent atoms (viscous matter).
The electrical charge collected by a nucleic proton (that is part of a proton-electron pair) is variable (see 21) above) and responsible for repelling adjacent atoms (gaseous matter).
An atom's nucleic structure is replicated in the lattice structure of both viscous and gaseous matter.

## 26) The State of Matter

Matter can be viscous (solid or liquid) and gaseous.
Viscous matter exists when the [attractive] magnetic field energy generated by proton-electron pairs in its atoms is greater than the [repulsive] electrical charge energy in its protons.
Gaseous matter exists when the [attractive] magnetic field energy generated by proton-electron pairs in its atoms is less than the [repulsive] electrical charge energy in its protons.
Dalton's Law: An atom's nucleic structure (see 25) above) is replicated in the organisation of elemental matter in both viscous and gaseous states.

## 27) Light

Light is electro-magnetic energy; it possesses no mass.

## 28) Light Deflection

The angle of deflection of electro-magnetic radiation by a celestial body is calculated according to the following formula:
α = Atan(4 . aₒ.m / R.mu) {kg.m / kg.m}
where:
G = aₒ.c²/mu {m³ / s².kg} (see 1) above)
mu = unit mass of ultimate density
m = mass of celestial body
R = radius from the centre of the celestial mass to the electro-magnetic radiation

## 29) The Meaning of E=mc²

In circular orbits (e.g. atomic shells): potential energy between a force-centre and its satellite is twice the satellite's kinetic energy
PE = 2.KE = 2 . ½.m.v² = m.v²
At the speed of electro-magnetic energy (c); PE = m.c² (see 22) above)
This energy represents the maximum possible potential energy in nature (PEₙ and KEₙ).

## 30) The Physical Constants

There are only four physical constants:
e ; electrical charge of an electron (1.60217648753E-19 C)
m ; mass of an electron (9.1093897E-31 kg); should be magnetic charge (1.60217648753E-19 G (see 4) above))
Rₙ ; neutronic radius; the orbital radius of an electron when orbiting at 'c'
tₙ ; neutronic period; the orbital period of an electron when orbiting at 'c'
Two ratios:
Static ; ξₘ = mₚ/mₑ
Dynamic ; ξᵥ = c/vₒ
And:
Σ = 3E-91 m⁶

## 31) The Coupling Ratio (φ)

The ratio of; repulsive force due to electrical charge : attractive force due to magnetic charge:
φ = [ G.m₁.m₂ / R² ] / [ k.q₁.q₂ / R² ]
In the atom (where this ratio applies):
φ = [ G.mₑ.mₚ ] / [ k.e² ] = 4.40742111792334E-40
This ratio defines the reasoning behind gravity being the "weak force"
But because electrical charge is shared and magnetic charge is accrued (see 4) & 5) above), gravitational force between celestial bodies is enormous and electrical force is negligible

## 32) Magnetic North (formula)

The difference between true and magnetic North is calculated as follows (see 16) above):
β = sign(ω/ωₘ) . ½.√[ |Asin(ω/ωₘ)| ]
ω ; angular velocity of the core
ωₘ ; angular velocity of the mantle

The orbital radius of an electron when it reaches the velocity of electro-magnetic radiation (c)
Rₙ = G.mₚ / φ.c² = 2.81793795383896E-15 m

## 34) Neutronic Temperature (Ṯₙ)

The temperature of a proton-electron pair when the electron reaches the velocity of electro-magnetic radiation (c) and the highest possible temperature that can be generated in nature.
Ṯₙ = mₑ.c² / kB.Y = 623316124.717178 K

## 35) Neutrons and the Static Ratio (ξm)

The static ratio is the difference between the mass of a proton and that of an electron.
This ratio ensures that a proton-electron pair unite when the orbiting electron exceeds the speed of electro-magnetic energy (c).
At which point, the magnetic field energy generated between the electron and its proton exceeds the potential (centrifugal, electrical & Newtonian) energy in the electron.
The potential force relationship between the proton and its orbiting electron can be described as follows:
At orbital radii greater than the neutronic radius (Rn), the balancing potential forces of an orbiting electron are as follows:
FG = FE = Fc > Fm
At the neutronic radius (Rn), the balancing potential forces of an orbiting electron are as follows:
FG = FE = Fc = Fm
At orbital radii less than the neutronic radius (Rn), the balancing potential forces of an orbiting electron are as follows:
FG = FE = Fc < Fm
Where the forces are calculated as follows:
Potential: FG = -G.me.mp / φ.R² {m³ / kg.s² . kg² / m² = kg.m/s² = N}
Electrical: FE = -k.e² / R² {kg.m³ / C².s² . C²/m² = kg.m/s² = N}
Centrifugal: Fc = me.v² / R {kg.m²/s² / m = kg.m/s² = N}
Magnetic: Fm = μ.g.e² / R {kg.m/C² . m/s² . C²/m = kg.m/s² = N}
= me.c².Rn² / R³ {kg.m²/s² . m²/m³ = kg.m/s² = N}
and:
g = -G.mp / R².φ {m³ / kg.s² . kg / m² = m/s²}
μ = Rn.me/e² = 1E-07 {kg.m / C²}

## 36) Temperature (T)

The temperature we measure in matter is the kinetic energy in the electrons orbiting in an atom's innermost electron shells
Ṯ = X.v² (see 38) below)
Ṯ = PE / Y.KB

## 37) Heat

The heat in matter is the sum of all the kinetic energy in all the orbiting electrons throughout the matter.

## 38) New & Revised Constants

Temperature Coefficient: Y = ³√[½.ξᵥ] = 9.51345439232503
Electron velocity factor: X = mₑ / kB.Y = 6.9353271647894E-09 K.s²/m²
Electron orbital factor: XR = Rₙ.mₑ.c² / kB.Y = 1.75646616508035E-06 K.m
KEₙ = ½.mₑ.c² {J}
PEₙ = 2.KEₙ {J}
eₙ = e.ξᵥ {C}
Rα = 1 / aₒ.ξᵥ {/m}
Rγ = Rₐ/aₒ . ½.mₑ.c² {J}
k = μ.c² {J.m/C²}
μ = Rₙ.mₑ/e² = 1E-07 {kg.m/C²}
εₒ = 1 / μₒ.c² {C² / J.m}
hꞌ = Rₙ.KEₙ {J.m}

## 39) Orbital π

The following relationship applies to all orbits; it is an orbital law.
You will find that the planets about which we know the most (Orbits), give us the most accurate result.
But those that are slightly out, mean that the data given to us by NASA and others is not quite correct.
Of the calculations carried for the 170 orbits addressed in our study of the Laws of Motion, this relationship is rarely out by more than 5%.
However, this discovery, allows us to derive accurate properties for all of the celestial bodies (and their orbits) in our solar system.

F' = E/t . K . h
F = ½.(Fₐ + Fₚ)
F'/F = π
Where:
E = orbital total energy (PE+KE)
t = orbital period
K = Isaac Newton's constant of proportionality
h = Isaac Newton's constant of motion
Fₐ = potential force between a force-centre and its satellite at its apogee
Fₚ = potential force between a force-centre and its satellite at its perigee

## 40) The elimination of:

The following have been proven mathematically and logically:
photons do not exist because it is impossible for electrons to travel at 'c'
black-holes are simply black bodies that generate no internal heat through friction and can be any size - they are cold because they are not satellites
mass does not change to energy with velocity; E=mc² refers to potential energy, not kinetic energy
event horizons are based upon a misunderstanding of light - it is actually astro-lensing, which is based upon Newton's gravitational constant (see 28) above)
fusion energy is only possible in galactic force-centres and the ultimate body, where atoms are cold and core-pressure is sufficient to overcome the potential energy in proton-electron pairs

The following have not only been shown incorrect, they have also become unnecessary because Isaac Newton's theories have been successfully applied to all of nature under any and all conditions:
Relativity
Quantum Theory
Dark Matter
Black Holes
String-Theory
Sub-Atomic Particles
Uncertainty
Anti-Matter
Unification Theory