The following is a general description of the proton-electron pair; a Newtonian concept derived by Keith Dixon-Roche during his work on Isaac Newton's laws of motion.
Note: All the input data in these calculations has been provided by CalQlata's Constants and Definitions pages.
This model and all associated calculations are the sole copyright property of Keith Dixon-Roche © 2018
Keith Dixon-Roche is also responsible for all the other web pages on this site related to atomic theory
The proton-electron pair is a single proton with a single orbiting electron. This is the hydrogen atom.
Protons are positively charged and electrons are negatively charged.
This means that a free-flying electron will be attracted to any lone proton as soon as it comes within range. Once a partnership is established, the proton will collect no more electrons.
Because an electron possesses intrinsic kinetic energy (it must move) it will not attach itself to the proton, it will go into orbit about it. And because the electron is providing its own kinetic energy, its orbit must be circular. And in circular orbits, it is a fundamental law of orbital motion that the potential energy between a satellite (electron) and its force-centre (proton) is always exactly twice the satellite's kinetic energy; PE = -mₑ.v².
And when the electron achieves the speed of light - as in the core of an active star - the pair will unite to become a neutron; PE = -mₑ.c².
Electrons and protons exist as proton-electron pairs (H) both within atoms and alone. Their opposite electrical charges provide their mutual attraction. A lone proton (H⁺) will always trap a free-flying electron that is within range (Fig 1). The electron's perpetual motion keeps it in orbit about its proton partner.
An orbiting electron collects energy and charge from its surrounding electro-magnetic energy (EME). It converts the EME to kinetic energy and passes the additional charge on to its proton partner, reducing its orbital radius whilst increasing its velocity; exactly as Newton and Coulomb predicted (Fig 2).
The proton-electron pair continually radiates the EME it collects from its surroundings. If the energy in the surrounding EME is less than the energy of the pair, the electron will slow down and the proton will lose its charge until the electron KE and the surrounding EME balance.
The orbital nature of the opposite electrical charges generates electrical and magnetic fields (Fig 3)
The proton's electrical charge and the pair's electrical field both vary proportionally with temperature.
Irrespective of their environmental temperature, proton-electron pairs (hydrogen atoms) can never become viscous#. That is how we know that it exists as a gas even in the coldest reaches of our universe.
# This is not the case for deuterium or tritium, both of which can exist in viscous form.
An electron ejected from a proton-electron pair will hold its linear (v) and angular (ω) velocities (at the time of ejection) in free flight until affected by impact or gravity. What we see in bubble chambers as post-impact spiral paths is simply the result of impacting electrons that can be visualised as spinning billiard balls obeying Newton's laws of motion.
Angular velocity in an electron is: ω = 2π / t (t = orbital period at the time of ejection)
Linear velocity of an electron is: v = √[2.KE / mₑ] (at the time of ejection)
The following Table lists the formulas that may be used to calculate the properties of the proton-electron pair. The example shown predicts those properties for a temperature of 300K.
|Orbital radius||R = XR/Ṯ||5.85488721693451E-09||m|
|Orbital velocity||v = √[Ṯ/X]||207982.67075397||m/s|
|Orbital period||t = 2πR / v||7.38815108322488E+18||s|
|Newton's constant of proportionality||K = t²/R³||0.15587874533403||s²/m³|
|Kinetic energy||KE = ½.mₑ.v²||1.97021484716286E-20||J|
|Potential energy||PE = -2.KE = -mₑ.v²||-3.94042969432572E-20||J|
|Attractive force||F = PE/R||-6.73015473795726E-12||N|
|Newton's constant of motion||h = R.√[-PE/mₑ]||1.21771508034132E-03||m²/s|
|Electro-magnetic frequency||ƒ = 1/t||5.65364778201136E+12||Hz|
|Electro-magnetic wavelength||λ = c/ƒ||5.30263770505606E-05||m|
|Electro-magnetic amplitude||A = R||5.85488721693451E-09||m|
|Proton electrical charge||e' = e.ξᵥ.√[Ṯ/Ṯₙ]||1.91408631229910E-19||C|
|The Properties of a Proton-Electron Pair @ 300K
these calculations correctly predict the properties of a proton-electron pair at any temperature
The following Table lists the calculation results for the performance and properties of a proton-electron pair - together with a comparison between Newton's and Coulomb's forces and energies - at various temperatures:
|Electrical Performance (Coulomb):|
|Mechanical Performance (Newton):|
|Proton-Electron Pair Performance
speed of light
# mechanical:electrical ratios: /s² ## mechanical:electrical ratios: /s
As soon as the electron's velocity (v) reaches the speed of light (c), the magnetic field generated by the pair will exceed the electron's centrifugal force, and the pair will unite as a neutron.
Whilst the above description and formulas are sufficient to analyse any atom at any temperature, the following reference publications provide considerably more detail to that provided above.
You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications(69, 70, 71 & 73)