This web page is an explanation by Keith Dixon-Roche of the origins and workings of the universe.
The reason we know no more about the workings of the universe than we did a hundred years ago, is because we still believe in photons, dark-matter, black-holes, event horizons, relativity and quantum theory.
If we bypass these theories, go back to the pre-twentieth century physicists and start again, the universe can be easily explained with simple maths, obeying the conservation of energy and the laws of thermodynamics. And this is how you do it;
take Isaac Newton's laws of Motion to their logical conclusion.
If a mass is large enough, its core pressure will exceed the coupling ratio in its innermost atoms forcing two neutrons to make contact, initiating their unnatural decay and releasing their stored energy.
The resultant chain reaction is exactly the same as that released in an atom bomb, only much more powerful due to the body's size and the number of neutrons that must be impacted before its kinetic protons are released.
The minimum mass (mᵤ) required to achieve this condition is >4.7E+48kg, this is therefore the minimum mass of the universe, and relates to >2.8E+75 proton-electron pairs and neutrons.
This explosive chain reaction has become known as the 'Big-Bang', which could have released as much as 5.4E+62 Joules of neutron energy.
The ultimate body will have had sufficient internal pressure throughout its mass to fuse all elements, because it is cold.
Because fusion was possible inside the ultimate body, we can postulate that its average density was similar to the heaviest elements; e.g. Uranium; ρᵤ ≈ 19,000 kg/m³
giving the ultimate body a minimum radius of; r ≈ ³√[3.mᵤ / 4.π.ρᵤ] ≈ 3.9E+14 m
the gravitational acceleration at its surface would therefore have been; gᵤ ≈ G.mᵤ / r² ≈ 2E+09 m/s² #
# 200,000,000 times greater than at the surface of our own planet
Immediately after any 'Big-Bang', most of the ultimate body's matter is blasted into outer space at an initial velocity of approximately 1.8E+06 m/s (see Size and Age of the Universe below); commensurate with the energy released.
The matter ejected will have comprised various sizes of discrete bodies, the largest of which became the galactic force-centres, and the smaller of which will have entered into orbit - owing to gravitational pull and variable relative velocity - around the galactic force-centres.
As the galaxies travel away, the potential energy induced by the Great Attractor is slowing down their travel-rate; it is claimed that the Milky Way's velocity today is 6E+05 m/s (according to numerous sources). Eventually, this potential energy (gravity) will stop it altogether and return it all to a common point, where it will re-accumulate into another ultimate body. After which, the coupling ratio will again be compromised and another 'Big-Bang' will occur.
The time between these 'Big-Bangs' is a universal period.
The basic input data is as follows:
universal age today: t₁ = 4.2602760E+17 s (13.5bn years ##)
velocity of Milky Way today: v₁ = 60,000 m/s (##)
ultimate body mass: mᵤ = 4.6920E+48 kg
number of neutrons in the ultimate body: Nₙ = 2.80364E+75 (x0.6)
energy per neutron: Eₙ = 1.6378560646571E-13
energy released during the last big-bang: KE ≈ 7.4E+60 J #
# 0.0161 of Little-Boy's uranium was released over Hiroshima (0.0161 x 2.80364E+75 x 1.637856E-13)
Initial velocity of universal matter: vₒ = √[2.KE/mᵤ] = 1776805.68 m/s
distance travelled since 'big-bang': R₁ = ½.t₁.(vₒ+v₁) = 5.0629241E+23 m
gravitational acceleration today: a = 2 . R₁/t₁² = 5.578994605E-12 m/s²
great attractor mass: m = a.R₁²/G = 2.1428862E+46 kg
outward movement will cease at: R₂ = 2.G.m/vₒ² = 9.05959748E+23 m
outward movement will cease at: t₂ = 2.R₂/vₒ = 1.01976233E+18 s (32.314 bn yr)
All universal mass will then return over the same period (t₂), to a location where it will reaccrete into another ultimate body and thereby compromise its innermost neutrons, resulting in the next 'big-bang';
This means that if the two above figures estimated by NASA (##) are correct, the total mass of the universe, including the 'Great Attractor' is; mₜ ≥ mᵤ+m ≥ 4.7134117E+48 kg;
and we must be 20.9% through our current universal period; i.e. it has another 51.12 billion years yet to run (Fig 1);
therefore, because EME travels at 'light-speed', any heat radiated at the time of the last 'big-bang' would have travelled 1.2772E+26 metres by now; i.e. outside the universe's eventual ultimate radial reach (R₂ ≈9.06E+23 m);
therefore, the temperature of outer space cannot be left over from the last 'big-bang', it is actually the heat generated by spin-friction (and fission) in all the stars (and planets), and radiated throughout the universe.
Moreover, the time (3.3776194E+15 s) necessary for light to travel across from the other side of the universe (2.R₁) is less than the current age of the universe (t₁). If our telescopes had the appropriate resolution, we should be able to see the entire universe from Earth today.
Other than that generated within celestial bodies through fission (stars) and fusion (galactic force-centres, the Great Attractor and the ultimate body), all matter in the universe has the same age; i.e. that of all previous universal periods combined.
The Great Attractor is simply the reaccreted rubble left behind after a 'Big-Bang'. As defined in 'Calculations above,' it is probably 2.1428862E+46kg (≈0.5% of all universal mass).
Whilst it is a force-centre, it has no satellites and is therefore cold (dark). Its function is to return all universal mass to a common point - via potential energy (Gravity) - and thereby generate the next 'Big-Bang'.
Although fusion is likely inside the Great Attractor, it is not to the same extent as in the ultimate body, therefore we can postulate that its average density may be similar to that of the medium heavy elements; e.g. iron; ρ ≈ 8,000 kg/m³
giving it a radius of; r ≈ ³√[3.m / 4.π.ρ] ≈ 8.61536E+13 m
and a gravitational acceleration at its surface of; g ≈ G.m / r² ≈ 1.92669E+08 m/s² #
# 20,000,000 times greater than at the surface of our own planet
Galactic force centres are the largest chunks of matter that were ejected during the last 'Big-Bang'. They were - and still are - travelling in a straight line away from what's left of the ultimate body (the great attractor). Because they are not satellites; i.e. not orbital, they are cold (dark). However, their own satellites will induce spin in them.
Because they are cold (dark) they are essentially invisible in outer space. They emit negligible electro-magnetic energy, and the EME which they do emit is of exceptionally long wavelength. We cannot today detect it. These bodies were therefore declared non-existent by the scientific community and replaced with dark-matter.
However, it is now believed that there is a black-hole at the centre of every galaxy. Yet despite its motive having been removed, most scientists still believe in the existence of dark matter.
The reason a galactic force-centre is cold, is because it is not in orbit. So, there is nothing to cause its core to spin relative to its mantle matter, and therefore generates no internal frictional heat.
Newton's laws of orbital motion enable us to calculate their mass, and spin theory gives us the ability to calculate their angular velocity.
Having been able to estimate the mass and spin-rate of our own galactic force-centre, it is now possible to estimate the number of galaxies in the universe; >2.66E+07
Galactic force-centres have sufficient mass to generate the internal pressures necessary to fuse smaller elements, because they are cold.
Although fusion is possible inside our own galactic force-centre, it is not to the same extent as in the ultimate body, therefore we can postulate that its average density may be similar to that of the medium heavy elements; e.g. iron; ρ ≈ 8,000 kg/m³
giving it a radius of ≈ 1.74E+12 m
and a gravitational acceleration at its surface of; ≈ 3.9E+06 m/s² #
# 400,000 times greater than at the surface of our own planet
Stars were probably the only universal satellites during the very early stages of our current universal period. They would not have hosted any sub-satellites (planets) of their own, and were therefore cold; not bright. They comprised similar matter as the galactic force-centres about which they orbited.
Planets and moons will most likely, thereafter, have been created as a result of stellar collisions and later, planetary collisions. These collisions are the source of galactic comets, which are then trapped by stars as sub-satellites (planets) as they pass through galactic solar systems.
As the mass of trapped sub-satellites increases over time, a satellite's (star's) own internal frictional heat also increases. Eventually, the heat generated within its core elements will reach the neutronic temperature adding considerably more heat (and light) through fission.
This event - fission - is what makes stars bright.
Stars are where all universal neutrons are created and then split, releasing fissionable energy, the by-product of which is hydrogen and helium gases that migrate to a star's surface and are responsible for causing them to apparently grow (in size but not mass) with age.
They cannot generate fusion in elements because; a) their elements are too hot, and; b) they have insufficient mass to generate the necessary core pressures.
Because fusion is not possible inside our own star, and because it is very hot, we can postulate that its average density may be similar to that of the lighter elements; e.g. Scandium; ρₛ ≈ 3,000 kg/m³
giving it a body radius of; r ≈ ³√[3.mₛ / 4.π.ρₛ] ≈ 5.4E+08 m
being essentially a gas planet, what we see of our sun is its gas cloud; its body-mass is considerably smaller.
and a gravitational acceleration at its surface would therefore be; gₛ ≈ G.mH / r² ≈ 453 m/s² #
# 46 times greater than at the surface of our own planet
Planets are galactic sub-satellites and stellar satellites. Whilst they comprise matter similar to the rest of the universe, their internal structure will vary according to the heat induced by their lunar population. The greater the internal [frictional] heat they generate, the more mobile their matter, allowing their heaviest elements to migrate towards the planet's core, where gravitational pull is greatest.
They tend to occupy three groups, two of which are active.
Because planetary satellites (moons) tend to induce significantly more internal friction than the torque induced by the spin in their stellar force-centres, those with no moons are unlikely to generate sufficient internal heat to melt their mantle matter, making them largely inactive and therefore barren.
Planetary atoms works in exactly the same way as a proton-electron pair. The relative rotary motion between the magnetic and electrical charges in their mantle and core atoms generates the planet's protective magnetic field. The greater the internal spin energy, the more intense the magnetic field.
Barren planets will generate almost no magnetic field because they generate negligible relative internal spin, and stars will generate the most. Gas planets, which tend to be large and attract the greatest number of satellite mass, will normally generate a more intense magnetic field than Life-Giving planets.
Barren planets are those with little or no lunar mass and therefore negligible internal heat. They tend to be those nearest to their stellar force-centre where their force-centre's gravitational attraction is greatest, denying them the opportunity to trap galactic comets.
Life-giving planets are those that have accumulated sufficient lunar mass to generate the internal [frictional] heat to melt their mantle matter, but insufficient to melt their crusts. Their mantle heat, in combination with the relative internal angular velocities, are together responsible for generating tectonic plate activity in their crusts. These planets tend to occupy the orbits that lie between the barren and gas planets.
Gas planets are those that have accumulated the greatest lunar mass and therefore generate sufficient internal [frictional] heat to melt their crusts, creating the heavy gas clouds that surround them. They tend to occupy the outer orbits, where their stellar force-centre's gravitational influence is lowest.
Stellar-Planets are simply massive gas planets that have accumulated sufficient lunar mass to generate the internal heat required to achieve the neutronic temperature in their core elements. These planets will appear to us as binary stars, however, only one of which is a stellar force-centre (star); the other is a satellite (planet).
Outer space is not full of dark matter; it is empty.
The only thing in outer space is the electro-magnetic energy (EME) radiated by all the celestial bodies in it. This EME is responsible for generating the little heat that exists out there. Its temperature is; 2.7255K.
Because the temperature of outer space is so low, we know that the only natural gas that can exist in it is hydrogen (H). Therefore, we also know that our solar system cannot have accreted from gas.
The only naturally bright celestial bodies are those that generate fissionable energy, i.e. their core elements have achieved the neutronic temperature. We call these stars, but it is possible that some gas planets have also achieved this condition.
Without stellar reflection, life-giving and gas planets would otherwise be dark. However, because they are generating considerable internal heat, they radiate low-frequency electro-magnetic energy that can be detected.
Celestial bodies need both a force-centre and satellite(s) to generate internal [frictional] heat and thereby radiate detectable electro-magnetic energy.
Galactic force-centres are dark (cold) because they are not satellites; they are not in orbit.
Moons are dark (cold) because they have no satellites of their own.
A black body is one that does not generate and thereby, radiate detectable electro-magnetic energy.
The image below describes the workings of our universe during any universal period.
The above model explains every celestial body; where it came from, how old it is (the same age as the universe itself), why it looks and behaves the way it does, etc.
It can repeat itself eternally with no outside help and yet conform to all three laws of thermodynamics and the conservation of energy.
You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications(74)