This webpage provides the evidence that the Newton-Coulomb atomic model can be used to predict the properties of same-element matter.

Sources: Planck's Atom; Newton's Atom; Laws of Motion; Physical Constants

Related Books: Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Rev. IV; The Atom; The Mathematical Laws of Natural Science

Related Calculators: Atomic Elements; Orbital Motion; Atoms; Physics

CalQlata comment: This is the only study we (at CalQlata) know on this subject that manifestly works.

The purpose of this study is to answer the following question:

*1) Can the Newton-Coulomb atomic model be used to predict the properties of elemental matter using mathematics?*

The answer to the above question is yes.

An online calculator for this subject is now available on this website.

Fig 1. Gas Transition Temperature and Density

Matter is a collection of atoms.

In its basic form, it is a crystal lattice of same-element atoms, the properties of which can be easily predicted using mathematics.

The state of matter refers to its condition; viscous or gaseous, which is governed by the relationship between its temperature and its density, both of which are governed by the neutronic ratio (ψ) of its atoms. It appears therefore, that an element's characteristics are defined by its neutrons. If it was based upon its protons (Z), the plots in Fig 1 would be linear.

This study of elemental matter was sparked by the discovery that their densities (ρ) and gas transition temperatures (Ṯ_{g}) are directly related by their neutronic ratio, which is clearly revealed in Fig 1. Because the plots in Fig 1 are based upon documented data, it is understood that there will be minor discrepancies due to experimental error. However, as we now know how atoms work, we can apply this information to how same-element atoms interact; as matter.

Fig 2. Viscous vs Gaseous Matter

For example; all adjacent atoms are attracted by the magnetic field generated by their proton-electron pairs, and repulsed by their electrical charges, exactly as Coulomb explained. Therefore, magnetism must be responsible for an element's viscosity and electricity must define its gaseous properties.

And because magnetism is not affected by temperature, this inter-atomic attraction never changes in viscous matter^{#}. But the electrical charge collected by an atom's protons does vary with temperature; therefore, as temperature rises so too does inter-atomic repulsion. When the collective electrical charge in an atom's protons exceeds its magnetic attraction, the matter will exist as a gas.

# apart from minor variations due to changes in crystal structure.

Fig 2 shows how this viscous/gaseous relationship applies to oxygen atoms:

The magnetic attraction force is calculated thus: Fₘ = hₚ².mₐ / R³ = (Rₙ.c)²/*ξₘ* . mₐ / R³

The electrical repulsion force is calculated thus: Fₑ = Ṯ.KB.N / R = PE₁.N / R.Y

Where:

mₐ is the atomic mass

R is the inter-atomic radial separation

N is the number of atoms in the gaseous molecule (1 or 2)

PE₁ is the potential energy in the atom's innermost shell (shell number 1) proton-electron pairs

We can define this constant using the atomic constants 'Z' and 'RAM' for each atom:

Atomic Number: Z; 1 to 92

Relative Atomic Mass: RAM

Neutronic Ratio: Ψ = RAM/Z – 1

Neutronic Factor: Γ = 9.(Ψ - 1)

Fig 3. Lattice Factor vs Atomic Properties

Lattice Constant: ζ is the temperature:density ratio (Fig 3)

Where T_{g} is the gas-transition temperature of the atom, and ρ is its viscous density. The formula used to establish its value is:

ζ = ³√[ Ṯ_{g}.A.(Ψ-1) / ρ.R ]

radius 'R' was calculated from; Ṯ_{g} = Mₐ / N.A.R²

It should be understood that this constant has been set here using documented values for ρ & T_{g}, both of which are subject to experimental error; some mismatch is therefore expected. But as can be seen in Fig 3, the relationship is clearly identified (see Discussion below).

This radius may be calculated as follows:

R = √[ mₐ / N.Ṯ_{g}.A ]

and the following formulas:

Ṯ_{g} = mₐ / N.R².A & ρ = Ṯ_{g}.A.(ψ-1) / ζ³.R

may be used to define the values for gas transition temperature and viscous density, both of which are plotted in Figs 4a & 4b^{#}

# both graphs include two plots, one blue and one red. The blue plot is hidden behind the red plot

Fig 4a. Gas Transition Temperature; Calculated vs Documented

It is important to understand that the gas transition temperature (Ṯ_{g}) can only occur when the magnetic and electrical forces (Fₘ and Fₑ) are equal (Fig 2) at the same atomic separation radius. In other words, whilst the separation radii between adjacent atoms will always be identical whether viscous or gaseous, at temperatures above and below 'Ṯ_{g}', these forces will not be equal.

Fig 4b. Density; Calculated vs Documented

Using the above values; Z, RAM, ψ, Γ & R, we can now calculate the properties of any and all same-elemental matter.

Fig 5. Specific Heat Capacity; Calculated vs Documented

The specific heat capacity of any atom may be calculated for any temperature using the following formula:

SHC = KE_{T} / Y.mₐ.Ṯ

where Ṯ is the measured temperature of the atoms; i.e. that of the proton-electron pairs whose electrons are orbiting in the atoms innermost shell (shell-1), and KE_{T} is the sum of all of the kinetic energies in all the atom's electrons.

Fig 5 shows quite clearly that the calculated values match those extracted from various document sources.

Potential acceleration is the magnetic [field] attraction and electrical [charge] repulsion between adjacent atoms, which can be calculated as follows:

gₘ = G.mₐ / φ.R²

gₑ = Fₘ.R / μ.e²

gₘ must equal gₑ at all times, whether the elements are in viscous or gaseous state.

It is possible to determine the state of matter using the atomic separation force formulas (provided above); i.e. it will be gaseous if Fₑ is greater (than Fₘ) otherwise it will be viscous.

Fig 6. The calculated Condition for Matter

As can be seen in Fig 6, where the electrical and magnetic forces have been plotted together at a temperature of 2500K, the atomic elements exist as gaseous matter where the red line is above the blue line, and as viscous matter where the blue line is higher.

Viscosity is the frictional resistance between adjacent atoms and only applies to viscous matter.

Dynamic viscosity is the difference between the magnetic and electrical forces (at a particular temperature) and may be calculated as follows:

μ = (Fₘ-Fₑ)/hₚ {N.s/m²}

If the result is negative, i.e. electrical repulsion (Fₑ) is greater than magnetic attraction (Fₘ), the matter will be gaseous and offer no viscous resistance.

The tensile modulus is a reflection of the pressure exerted between adjacent atoms due to their magnetic [field] force (Fₘ). However, as temperature rises, so too does the electrical [charge] repulsion. This not only reduces viscosity in viscous matter, but also reduces the attractive pressure holding the atoms together in the form of viscous matter.

The tensile modulus of a pure and perfect crystal of any elemental matter can be calculated from its dynamic viscosity:

E = μ.ƒ / √ζ (N.s/m² . 1/s = N/m²)

where 'ƒ' is the orbital frequency of the electrons in shell-1 of the elemental atoms, which may be calculated as follows:

ƒ = √[X_{R} / X.R₁] / (2πR₁) = √[Ṯ/X] / (2πR₁)

'R₁' is the orbital radius of the electrons in shell-1 and 'Ṯ' is the measured temperature of the matter.

Fig 7. Mathematical Prediction of Tensile Modulus

The current method for calculating the resistance (force) generated in a body travelling through a gas was established by J. R. Morrison et. al.

However, the above atomic model can also be used to determine this same force.

We know from above that magnetism (magnetic field) holds atoms together and electrical charge forces them apart (Fig 2).

Therefore, the drag induced in a body travelling through a gas (e.g. our atmosphere) is almost certainly caused by the magnetic field generated between adjacent gas and body atoms.

**Morison equation**

drag force: F = ½.Cd.ρ.A.v²

**KDR's equation**

atomic radial separation: R = ³√[ 3.mM / 4π.ρ ] { ³√[kg / kg/m³] = m } #

inter-atomic attraction [magnetic] force: Fₘ = (Rₙ.c)²/*ξₘ* . mₐ/R³ { m⁴/s² . kg/m³ = kg.m/s² = N } #

number of gas-atoms in contact with the surface of the body: Nº = A / (2π.R)²

total attraction force between gas and body: Fₜ = Fₘ.Nº

drag force: F = F.v² / 1.g { N . (m/s)² / (m.m/s²) = N }

The above formuas accumulate to; F = mₐ.(Rₙ.c)²/*ξₘ* . A . v²/(2π)²/g/[ 3.mM / 4π.ρ ]5/3

# The Mathematical Laws of Natural Science

The following Table lists a 'force' comparison between the two above calculation options based upon the following variables:

surface area: A = 3 m²

coefficient of drag: Cd = 0.75

velocity (m/a) | KDR equation (N) | Morison equation (N) | error | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 |
1.18679 4.74717 10.68113 18.98868 29.66981 42.72453 58.15283 75.95471 96.13018 118.67924 143.60188 170.89810 200.56791 232.61131 267.02829 303.81885 342.98300 384.52073 428.43205 474.71696 523.37544 574.40752 627.81317 683.59242 741.74524 802.27166 865.17165 930.44523 998.09240 1068.11315 |
1.10808 4.43233 9.97273 17.72931 27.70204 39.89094 54.29600 70.91723 89.75461 110.80817 134.07788 159.56376 187.26580 217.18401 249.31837 283.66890 320.23560 359.01846 400.01748 443.23266 488.66401 536.31152 586.17520 638.25504 692.55104 749.06320 807.79153 868.73602 931.89668 997.27349 |
1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 1.07103 |
||||||

Atomspheric Drag Force; equation comparison |

Whether or not inter-atomic magnetism is the cause of atmospheric drag, the above calculation makes this argument extremely compelling; yet again validating this atomic model.

Fig 8. Radial Separation Values; Actual vs Calculated

Finally we need to identify a relationship between the radial separation as calculated using the formula provided above, and another using the lattice constant (ζ):

actual radius as calculated above calculated radius (excluding ρ & Ṯ_{g}): R = π.aₒ.³√Γ / ζ

As can be seen in Fig 8, there exists an unmistakeable relationship between the two.
In order to match the two plots exactly, we simply need to vary (correct) the solid/liquid densities and gas transition temperatures (ρ and Ṯ_{g}) for each of the elements to identify their true values. The differences (±<5%) will be due to experimental errors in the documented values.

The most important validation of this atomic and elemental model is the accurate prediction of the properties of any gas at any temperature using the potential energy of an atom's electron kinetic energy; replacing the need for the ubiquitous PVRT formula.

But when considered together with the accurate prediction of the specific heat capacity of any and all atoms (Fig 5), there can no longer be any doubt that the Newton-Coulomb atom is the correct model.

It is interesting to note that the noble gases are directly related to 'Γ' (Fig 9).

Given that together with its neutronic ratio (ψ) we can define an element's density, radial separation and the rate at which its atoms eject its neutrons (radioactive fission), it is highly likely that neutrons - not protons - govern the behaviour of elements and thereby define their characteristics.

Fig 9. Mathematical Prediction of the Noble Gases

Note: Γ = 9.(ψ -1)

where ψ is the neutronic ratio

And because neutrons also store all of the universe's energy, they play a far more important part in the workings of the universe - and everything within it - than with which they are currently credited.

It could be argued that, because lattice constant 'ζ' and radial separation radii (R) were originally established from documented data, that the above results were contrived. However, all of the properties calculated above use 'R' in different forms:

T_{g} (1/R²); ρ (1/R); Fₘ (1/R³); Fₑ (1/R); gₘ (1/R²); gₑ (.R); E (1/R²)

If this radius is altered, at least three of these calculated properties are incorrect.

Many different radii have been tried during this study, but the above values are the only ones found that ensure full compliance.

You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications^{(69, 70, 71 & 73)}