Mathematical Constants

CalQlata does not rely on the accuracy of mathematical and physical constants provided in any source without verifying it through research and calculation.
As such, you may find that some of the constants provided below do not match those provided by recognised authorities such as Codata; e.g. Newton's gravitational constant.
Where we disagree with other values, we always provide our theoretical reasoning.

The following tables contain the principal constants used by CalQlata in its calculations.

Exact

The following table contains constants that are or have been calculated using exact, undisputable values.

NameSymbolValueUnits
natural logarithme2.71828182845905
Avogadro's ConstantNA6.02214129E+23
permeability of free spaceμ₀1.25663706143592E-06H/m
permittivity of free spaceε₀8.85418775855161E-12F/m
elementary charge unite1.60217648753E-19C
electron/proton chargeQ1.60217648753E-19C
Faraday's ConstantF96485.3317942158C/mol
Coulomb's constantk8.98755184732667E+09N.m²/C²
Dirac's constantħ1.05457207144921E-34J.s
Planck's constanth6.62607174469163E-34J.s

Probably Exact

The following table contains constants that are or have been calculated using values that are probably exact and not usually disputed.

NameSymbolValueUnits
golden ratioΦ1.61803398874989
atomic mass unitamu‎1.66053892103219E-24kg
speed of light in a vacuumc299792459m/s
rest mass of an electronmₑ9.1093897E-31kg
mass of a protonmp1.67262163783E-27kg
mass of a neutronmn1.6475621480E-27kg
Bohr radiusaₒ5.2917721067E-11m
Rydberg constantR10973726.9561359/m
electron energy @ aₒRᵧ2.17987197684936E-18J
electron energy @ aₒRᵧ13.605691968492eV
Boltzmann's constantKB1.38065156E-23J/K/molecule
ideal gas constantRᵢ8.314478766579 J/K/mol

CalQlata's Values {© 20/10/2017}

The following table contains constants that have been derived by CalQlata using the above constants or other undisputable values.

NameSymbolValueUnits
gravitational accelerationg9.80663139027614m/s²
Newton's gravitational constantG6.67359232004332E-11N.m²/kg²
Planck's forceF1.21038391820525E+44N
Planck's energyE1.95618559889903E+09J
Planck's massm2.1765500017459E-08kg
Planck's lengthλ1.61616952231127E-35m
Planck's timet5.39096122598358E-44s
energy transmission rateEᵀ3.62863971172807E+52J/s
max force transmission ratevᵀ9.99308196666667E+98m/s
coupling ratio (constant)φ4.40742111792333E-40
radiation constantr8.61706029887133E-11C/kg
limiting densityρ7.12660796350449E+16kg/m³
neutronic radius
{© 01/10/18}
ρ2.817937953839E-15m
heat transfer coefficient
{© 17/11/18}
X3.59332719743457E-11K.s²/m²
heat transfer coefficient
{© 17/11/18}
XR9.10059106425514E-09K.m
heat transfer coefficient
{© 17/11/18}
Xₐ3.05797292372853E+18m / K².s²
heat transfer coefficient
{© 17/11/18}
Y9.51345439232503
static ratio
{© 15/07/19}
ξₘ1836.15115053207m / K².s²
dynamic ratio
{© 15/07/19}
ξᵥ1722.0458764934

Further Reading

You will find further reading on this subject in various reference publications

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