The Big Bang (a working hypothesis) {© 03/12/17}

This paper, which was released on the 3rd of December 2017 by Keith Dixon-Roche (one of CalQlata's Contributors) represents a working hypothesis for the source and cause of the Big Bang.

Note: All the theories are provided by CalQlata's Laws of Motion, Core Pressure and The Classical Atom
All the calculations are the sole copyright priority of Keith Dixon-Roche © 2017
Keith Dixon-Roche is also responsible for all the other web pages on this site related to planetary motions and properties
A 'pdf' version of this paper can be found at: Big Bang - The Paper


The purpose of this paper is to present a scenario that describes the Big Bang based upon the author's discoveries in Core Pressure and The Classical Atom, and represents the universe as we see it today.


The hypothesis presented in this paper is viable as it is supported by known mathematical theories and reproduces a universe similar to that which we see today and provides the following information concerning the Big Bang and our universe:
The Big Bang occurred when the gravitational energy within a proton-star generated a pressure that compromised a proton's energy.
The proton-star had a mass of 4.68943E+48 kg
The energy released during the Big Bang was 4.49193E+56 J
The velocity of our Milky Way galaxy is 13,841 m/s relative to the source of the Big Bang
The mass of the universe is the same as the mass of the proton-star
There are approximately 8.784256E+10 Milky Way galactic-masses in the universe
There are approximately 2.80364E+75 sub-atomic particles in the universe

The Body System

A Proton-Star


Determine the pressure required to compromise a proton using the theories of the atom and core pressure

Determine the size of a proton star that would generate such a pressure

Determine the energy released in the resultant explosion


It is assumed that the Big Bang occurred when a proton's integrity was compromised by gravitational force, which would occur when gravitational force (G.mₚ²/R²) exceeds Coulomb's repulsion force (k.e²/R²)
G is Newton's gravitational constant
k is Coulomb's constant
e is the elementary charge
mp is the mass of a proton
R is the diameter of a proton

Together, these formulas define the mass necessary to balance the attractive (gravitational) and repulsive (electrical) forces:
mᵤ = k.e² /φ + mp
mᵤ = the ultimate mass (i.e. 'Big Bang' mass)

mᵤ = 4.68943E+48 kg
Np = mᵤ/mp = 2.80364E+75
i.e. there are approximately 2.80364E+75 sub-atomic particles in the universe

If each proton possesses the equivalent of 1.6021765E-19 J, the energy released when the proton star exploded (i.e. when the innermost proton was compromised) would have been:
Eᵤ = e.Np = 4.49193E+56 J

If the mass of the proton star prior to the explosion is the same as the mass in the universe today (equivalent to 8.784256E+10 Milky Way galactic masses) the average velocity of all galaxies must be equal to √[2.E/m] relative to the centre of the explosion, i.e.:
v ≤ √[2.Eᵤ/mᵤ] = 13,841 m/s

The relative velocity of the Milky Way and most other galaxies is due to the 3-D effect of universal travel post 'Big Bang'.

A proton star is proposed for the ultimate mass because of the energy required to explode if compromised, whilst a solid lump of neutrons would not.


Proposal 1: The Big Bang was caused by a star with the density of a proton at its centre, that was large enough to generate sufficient pressure from gravitational energy to compromise a proton

Proposal 2: The proton star had a mass of 4.68943E+48 kg

Proposal 3: There are approximately 2.80364E+75 sub-atomic particles in the universe

Proposal 4: The Big Bang explosion occurred at the centre of the proton star

Proposal 5: The energy released by the exploding proton star is 4.49193E+56 J

Proposal 6: The universe has a mass identical to the proton star

Proposal 7: There are approximately 8.784256E+10 Milky Way galactic masses in the universe

Proposal 8: The linear velocity of the Milky Way galaxy is 13,841 m/s relative to the source of the Big Bang

Papers, Mathematical Symbols & Units

Newton's gravitational constant: G = 6.67359232004332E-11 m³/kg/s²

Coulomb's constant: k = 8.98755184732667E+09 N.m²/C²

Elementary charge: Q ≡ 1.60217648753000E-19 J

Universal density: ρ = 7.12660796350450E+16 kg/m³

Refer to the following pages for planetary properties used in the above calculations:
Laws of Motion
Core Pressure
The Classical Atom

Further Reading

You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications(55, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 & 66)