A working hypothesis for the source and properties of the Big Bang.
Sources: Core Pressure Theory; The Universe; Black Holes?; Laws of Motion; Physical Constants
Related Books: Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica Rev. IV; The Universe; The Mathematical Laws of Natural Science
Related Calculators: Core Pressure; Orbital Motion; Physics
CalQlata comment: This is the only study we (at CalQlata) know on this subject that manifestly works.
The purpose of this study is to answer the following questions:
1) Can the universal 'Big-Bang' be explained using Core Pressure and Newton's atom?
2) If so, what were its features?
The answer to question 1) above is yes, what's more, we can explain its features.
The 'Big-Bang' was probably caused by the re-accretion of all universal mass exceeding the coupling ratio, causing two core neutrons to contact and split resulting in a nuclear chain reaction.
The actual mass involved is probably 4.7134E+48 kg, which constitutes 2.816445E+75 proton-electron pairs, and which probably constitutes the total mass of the universe.
The energy released would have been approximately 7.4063851E+60 Joules.
The 'Big-Bang' is probably a repetitious event occurring every 64.6286363 billion years (a universal period). If the Milky-Way galaxy is travelling at 60,000m/s, we are 21% through the current universal period.
Determine the size of a mass that would generate such a pressure
Determine the energy released in the resultant explosion
It is assumed that the 'Big Bang' occurred when a neutron's integrity was compromised by gravitational force, which would occur when gravitational force (G.mₙ²/R²) exceeds Coulomb's repulsion force (k.e²/R²)
G is Newton's gravitational constant
k is Coulomb's constant
e is the elementary charge
mₙ is the mass of a neutron
R is the diameter of a proton
Together, these formulas define the mass necessary to balance the attractive (gravitational) and repulsive (electrical) forces:
mᵤ = k.e² / G.mₙ.φ + mₙ
mᵤ = the ultimate body mass = 4.68687882273808E+48 kg
Nₙ = mᵤ/mₙ = 2.80364E+75
i.e. there are approximately; N = 2.80059013353655E+75 proton-electron pairs in the universe
If each neutron holds 1.63785606465701E-14 J, the energy released when the coupling ratio was compromised would have been less than:
Eᵤ = Eₙ.Nₙ = 5.39642768803697E+62 J
based upon the percentage of U₂₃₅ that was lost during 'Little Boy' bomb explosion; ≈1kg (KEᵤ = Eᵤ x 1.37%).
I.e.: the initial velocity of all galaxies must have been equal to √[2.KEᵤ/mᵤ] ≈1776805.68 m/s
If (apart from the residual) the mass of the ultimate body prior to the explosion (mᵤ) is the same as the mass in the universe today, there must be approximately 2.662E+07 [Milky-Way equivalent] galaxies in the universe.
Whilst all galaxies are travelling [away from a common point; the 'Big-Bang'] at about the same velocity, they would all appear to us (here in the Milky Way - and in fact to any other galaxy), that all other galaxies are travelling away from us, and that the farther they are from us the faster they are travelling (Hubble's law). But these 'apparent' velocities are relative, not true.
They are simply a feature of three-dimensional trigonometry.
You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications(55, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65 & 66)