# The Big Bang (a working hypothesis) {© 03/12/17}

This paper, which was released on the 3rd of December 2017 by Keith Dixon-Roche (one of CalQlata's Contributors) represents a working hypothesis for the source and cause of the Big Bang.

Note: All the theories are provided by CalQlata's Laws of Motion, Core Pressure and The Classical Atom
All the calculations are the sole copyright priority of Keith Dixon-Roche © 2017
Keith Dixon-Roche is also responsible for all the other web pages on this site related to planetary motions and properties
A 'pdf' version of this paper can be found at: Big Bang - The Paper

## Introduction

The purpose of this paper is to present a scenario that describes the Big Bang based upon the author's discoveries in Core Pressure and The Classical Atom, and represents the universe as we see it today.

## Conclusions

The hypothesis presented in this paper is viable as it is supported by known mathematical theories and reproduces a universe similar to that which we see today and provides the following information concerning the Big Bang and our universe:
The Big Bang occurred when the gravitational energy within a proton-star generated a pressure that compromised a proton's energy.
The proton-star had a mass of 4.68943E+48 kg
The energy released during the Big Bang was 4.49193E+56 J
The velocity of our Milky Way galaxy is 13,841 m/s relative to the source of the Big Bang
The mass of the universe is the same as the mass of the proton-star
There are approximately 8.784256E+10 Milky Way galactic-masses in the universe
There are approximately 2.80364E+75 sub-atomic particles in the universe

A Proton-Star

## Methodology

Determine the pressure required to compromise a proton using the theories of the atom and core pressure

Determine the size of a proton star that would generate such a pressure

Determine the energy released in the resultant explosion

## Calculations

It is assumed that the Big Bang occurred when a proton's integrity was compromised by gravitational force, which would occur when gravitational force (G.mₚ²/R²) exceeds Coulomb's repulsion force (k.e²/R²)
Where:
G is Newton's gravitational constant
k is Coulomb's constant
e is the elementary charge
mp is the mass of a proton
R is the diameter of a proton

Together, these formulas define the mass necessary to balance the attractive (gravitational) and repulsive (electrical) forces:
mᵤ = k.e² / G.mp.φ + mp
Where:
mᵤ = the ultimate mass (i.e. 'Big Bang' mass)

mᵤ = 4.68943E+48 kg
Np = mᵤ/mp = 2.80364E+75
i.e. there are approximately 2.80364E+75 sub-atomic particles in the universe

If each proton possesses the equivalent of 1.6021765E-19 J, the energy released when the proton star exploded (i.e. when the innermost proton was compromised) would have been:
Eᵤ = e.Np = 4.49193E+56 J

If the mass of the proton star prior to the explosion is the same as the mass in the universe today (equivalent to 8.784256E+10 Milky Way galactic masses) the average velocity of all galaxies must be equal to √[2.E/m] relative to the centre of the explosion, i.e.:
v ≤ √[2.Eᵤ/mᵤ] = 13,841 m/s

The relative velocity of the Milky Way and most other galaxies is due to the 3-D effect of universal travel post 'Big Bang'.

A proton star is proposed for the ultimate mass because of the energy required to explode if compromised, whilst a solid lump of neutrons would not.

## Propositions

Proposal 1: The Big Bang was caused by a star with the density of a proton at its centre, that was large enough to generate sufficient pressure from gravitational energy to compromise a proton

Proposal 2: The proton star had a mass of 4.68943E+48 kg

Proposal 3: There are approximately 2.80364E+75 sub-atomic particles in the universe

Proposal 4: The Big Bang explosion occurred at the centre of the proton star

Proposal 5: The energy released by the exploding proton star is 4.49193E+56 J

Proposal 6: The universe has a mass identical to the proton star

Proposal 7: There are approximately 8.784256E+10 Milky Way galactic masses in the universe

Proposal 8: The linear velocity of the Milky Way galaxy is 13,841 m/s relative to the source of the Big Bang

## Papers, Mathematical Symbols & Units

Newton's gravitational constant: G = 6.67359232004332E-11 m³/kg/s²

Coulomb's constant: k = 8.98755184732667E+09 N.m²/C²

Elementary charge: Q ≡ 1.60217648753000E-19 J

Universal density: ρ = 7.12660796350450E+16 kg/m³

Refer to the following pages for planetary properties used in the above calculations:
Laws of Motion
Core Pressure
The Classical Atom