# Fact, Fiction and Hmm!

Below are listed some interesting facts that have been discovered by CalQlata’s contributors, including some to which we have no explanation (Hmm!) and would appreciate your input if you have any to give.
We have also included some myths that are frequenctly referred to but that CalQlata has shown scientifically or mathematically to be incorrect (fiction).
If any of these facts are incorrect or misguided, please let us know, but only if supported with scientific, mathematical or independent (i.e. not government or company sponsored) statistics.

No. Fact, Fiction or Hmm! Comments
1. Mathematics
1.1 Pythagoras’ theorem also works in 3-D E.g. a cube
1.2 You can solve unsolvable integrals without using integration Simpson's Rule
2. Science
2.1 The orbital velocity of an electron at the neutronic radius is equal to the speed of light. 2π.Rₙ/tₙ = c
2.2 The units of Isaac Newton's gravitational constant are N.m²/kg² Incorrect; see Isaac Newton's gravitational constant
G = aₒ.c² / mᵤ = 6.67359232004332E-11 m³ / kg.s²
mᵤ = a unit mass of ultimate density
2.3 Henri Poincaré's formula 'E=m.c²' is the basis for relativity (kinetics) E = m.c² represents the potential energy between a force-centre and its satellite in circular orbits (E=m.c²)
2.4 Increasing the quantity of any gas in a mixture of gases without a corresponding increase in heat energy will result in a temperature decrease of the gas mixture See thermodynamic formula for gas mixtures that also applies to the earth’s atmosphere
2.5 Newton's laws do not apply to atomic structures Incorrect; proof comes from the fact that the potential and kinetic energies in a Newton-Coulomb atom predict exactly the same gas pressures as the universally accepted formula; p.V=n.R.Ṯ
2.6 Quantum theory describes the properties and characteristics of the atom Incorrect; the atom can be described completely both individually and united as matter using Newton's laws of motion; Quantum Theory is therefore redundant.
2.7 Unification theory is needed to tie sub-atomic and super-atomic laws of motion Incorrect; Newton's laws apply exactly to to atoms without any unification theory
2.8 Atoms require Quarks, Leptons, Fermions, etc. to create its properties and hold it together. Incorrect; The atom needs only three particles to make it work (electrons, protons and neutrons)
2.9 Photons are electrons that emit light Electrons do not emit light (there is no such thing as a photon)
3. Geo
3.1 The earth’s 'ozone layer' is confined to its atmospheric stratosphere Incorrect; ozone is generated throughout the entire column of atmospheric oxygen
3.2 There is a hole in the earth's 'ozone layer' Incorrect; it is impossible for a 'hole' to occur in any pressurised gas (Dalton's law)
3.3 Climatic variation is being significantly affected by mankind's activities Incorrect; mankind’s contribution is inconsequential
3.4 Gases lighter than air rise and gases heavier than air fall to the ground Incorrect; every atmospheric gas sits on the planet's surface and disperses vertically according to its specific volume and gravitational acceleration independent of all other atmospheric gases
(Dalton's law)
3.5 The earth's tectonic plates are pulled down into the mantle at subduction zones Incorrect; new sea floor is generated at mid-ocean ridges due to upwelling pressure from the mantle.
This generates planar compression in the plates that causes the wrinkles close to the ridge and friction (earthquakes) at the subduction zones.
Pulling the plates at the subduction zone would stretch and thin the plates eliminating wrinkling and the stiction that causes earthquakes.
The plate material is less dense than the mantle material and would not sink into the mantle if it wasn’t pushed.
Therefore, the earth's tectonic plates are pushed down into the mantle at subduction zones.
3.6 A force centre pulls its satellites around with it as it rotates on its axis Incorrect;
orbiting satellites (starts, planets, moons, etc.) actually rotate their force centre (black-hole, star, planet, etc.) as is shown in a recently released paper on planetary spin
3.7 Dark matter exists Incorrect;
Newton's laws of motion and planetary spin theory togther predict the behaviour of our sone in the Milky Way with no error (i.e. missing mass)
3.8 Black-holes are neutron stars spinning at light speed Incorrect; there are no such things as black-holes. Those bodies currently claimed to be Black-Holes are simply cold, and therefore dark; they emit no EME.
3.9 There are no forces generating the spin in planets Incorrect; Newton's orbital forces are responsible for generating spin in satellites and force-centres.
4. Technology
4.1 Even without a limited slip differential, emergency braking in dry conditions in today's good quality cars should not cause skidding The stopping power from tyres and braking systems in today's cars are evenly matched
5. Materials
5.1 Eutectoid steel contains 0.827170663% carbon and 99.172829337% of iron with respect to mass Eutectoid steel is 100% pearlite
5.2 The limiting mass of carbon that can be suspended in steel is 1.6727229% Above which, the excess carbon will form slag when cooled
6. Political and Social
6.1 The earth's atmospheric temperature is increasing
Incorrect; there is no independent evidence that the earth's atmospheric temperature is increasing; Fig 6
6.2 CO₂ is responsible for the current increase in earth's atmospheric temperature
(see 2.4 & 6.1 above)
Incorrect; Earth’s atmospheric mass comprises < 0.039% CO₂ and contributes only 0.0262% towards its total heat energy
6.3 Reducing atmospheric CO₂ will make the surface of the earth greener Incorrect; a 'greener' earth needs more plant-life, which needs more:
CO₂
liquid water
atmospheric heat (energy)
Therefore, reducing atmospheric CO₂ will make the surface of the earth less green
6.4 The UK government imposes road traffic speed limits for reasons of safety Incorrect; the primary cause of road traffic accidents are:
a) congestion, which is caused by speed limits
and
b) poor road construction and management