This web page contains the theory of energy, which was established by Keith Dixon-Roche during his development of Isaac Newton's Laws of Motion.

Forget everything you have heard about the universe to date. It's a lot simpler than you think.
Newton got it right, and Relativity and Quantum Theory are both dead.

## What is energy and how does it apply to the universe we know today?

First; we need to understand that everything in the universe comprises electrical and magnetic energy and nothing else, i.e. there is no such thing as gravity, mass, heat, etc.

Energy cannot be lost or gained, it can only be transferred (via radiation).

Energy packets are what we understand as atomic particles, and what Max Planck referred to as Quanta, which is the term that will be used on this website to collectively describe the only two that exist; protons and electrons (see The Neutron).

## Next, we need to understand the sources of energy

Polar magnetism is generated by electro-magnetic energy, such as that generated by a negative electrical charge orbiting a positive electrical charge (e.g. in motors and generators), the strength of which remains constant irrespective of the orbital speed of the electron. It is the magnetism we know exists in bar magnets. They generate field lines that flow from one end (positive {N}) to the other (negative {S}). These are much stronger than non-polar magnets but they are unidirectional.

Non-Polar magnetism is present, and constant, in all Quanta and what we understand today as gravity. It generates field lines that radiate out in all directions. It is much weaker than polar magnetism but it is all-pervasive.

Electrons are non-polar magnetic packets of energy with a negative electrical charge of fixed magnitude and perpetual kinetic energy that varies with absorbed electro-magnetic energy

Protons are non-polar magnetic packets of energy with a positive electrical charge that varies in proportion to the speed of its orbiting electron

Neutrons are protons and electrons united through high temperature

Electro-magnetic energy is generated by electrons orbiting protons, which is the means by which energy is transferred between electrons and by which neutrons are magnetically attracted to protons in atoms. An orbiting electron generates electro-magnetic radiation and polar magnetism in its proton.

Polar magnets are selective in the materials they attract because they attract the polar magnetism generated by proton-electron pairing, which is highly dependent upon nucleic alignment and crystal structure, not non-polar magnetism.

## How they relate to each other:

Non-polar magnetic energy is ≈4.407E-40 times that of electrical energy but is accrued when combined with other Quanta.

Electrical energy is shared between Quanta.

Both non-polar magnetic and electrical energy are all pervasive and retain magnitude irrespective of distance.

Electricity flows from negative to positive and magnetism flows from positive to negative.

## And, finally, how do we perceive these energies:

Mass is the manifestation of inertia due to non-polar magnetism in Quanta

Light is what we see from the 'electro' part of electro-magnetic radiation (it has no mass).

Kinetic energy is generated in electrons from electro-magnetic radiation.

Gravity (potential energy) is the attraction between Quanta due to non-polar magnetic energy. Electro-magnetic radiation is deflected by 'massive' bodies due to non-polar magnetism.

Heat is what we feel from the frequency of electro-magnetic radiation: the greater the frequency, the greater the heat.

The entire universe comprises a fixed, unchanging quantity of energy, it always has done and always will. It was originally contained within the ultimate-body, released during the last 'Big-Bang' and remains unchanged today.
[first law of thermodynamics]

Electro-magnetic radiation trapped by an electron and converted into kinetic energy is immediately lost through electro-magnetism radiated via its proton. Therefore, the kinetic energy in orbiting electrons naturally reverts to the energy in their surrounding EME.
[second law of thermodynamics]

The natural (minimum entropy) state of the universe is the reversion to protons and electrons
[third law of thermodynamics].

## Force

Energy was not a concept known to Isaac Newton so he used force to describe energy transfer.

Force is the manifestation of 'energy transferred between two or more bodies divided by the distance between them'.

This relationship is better known as; Energy = Force x Distance.

The difference between the two concepts can be described thus:

Energy is a force applied over a distance.

Force is energy per unit distance.

## Units of Energy

Keith Dixon-Roche has now shown that; the Roentgen (R), the Henry (H), the magnetic constant (μₒ), the Farad (F) and Lorentz's magnetic constant (B) can all be described in the same terms of force and energy (kg, m, s, C), confirming that:

a) all units (incl. V, A, Ω, S, K, etc.) can be explained in terms of force and energy, and;

b) when applied to the magnetic constant; and electrical inductance; (kg.m/C² & kg.m²/C² respectively), demonstrate that all energies are either electrical (C) or magnetic (kg).

## How does this relate to what we see and feel?

When you see an object, such as a cup, you are seeing all the adjacent atoms in that cup held together by magnetic field energy. In this form, which we refer to as 'solid', the atoms are sufficiently close together to prevent the atoms in, say, your hand, from passing between the atoms in the cup, allowing you to touch but not penetrate the cup.

The weight you feel when you lift the cup, is created by the magnetic charge energy between the Quanta in the cup and those in the earth.

If sufficient electro-magnetic energy is trapped by the electrons in the cup and your hand, all the atoms in both the cup and your hand will repel each other and intermingle, in a form that we understand as gas (Dalton's theory).

## Cold, Dark Matter

Cold, dark matter is that which radiates EME at very low frequencies (low energy). For example;
the temperature of outer-space is 2.7255 K - which is due to the heat constantly radiated by all the stars and planets in the universe - so all cold, dark, universal bodies must be at a slightly higher temperature than this, and
the lowest possible temperature in nature is calculated to be 2.042749 K, at which it is expected proton-electron pairs will separate.

This cold-dark matter (> 2.7255K) is where all atomic fusion takes place due to the low resultant repulsive proton charges (e').

## Summary

All of the energy in the universe (7.4E+60 Joules) was generated in all of its bright-stars during the previous universal periods, and stored in the neutrons they created, and released during the last 'Big-Bang'.
This neutronic energy is constantly being released through atomic half-life, but this contribution to universal heat is negligible when compared with that generated by orbital spin in planets and stars.
All energy that we (mankind) generate during our lifetime, originated from the release (splitting) of neutrons, whether it be EME, electrical or magnetic.
But neutrons are in all matter in the universe, and there is sufficient in just a couple of millimetres of the earth's crust to last mankind until the next 'Big-Bang', what's more, it can be released safely from non-radioactive matter at no cost to its users (Physics in Three Minutes>Atomic Fundamentals>Neutron).