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# Online Calculator: PVRT

This calculator calculates the pressure of a gas according to three different theories:
However, its principal purpose is to validate the Newtonian atom.
If all three pressures p₁, p₂ & p₃ are identical; PE₁ must be correct, which means the Newton/Coulomb atomic model must also be correct as PE₁ is the potential energy in the proton-electron pairs in atomic shell-1.

Enter the gas properties:

Input Property: Input Data Output Property: Output Data
air temperature (Ṯ): PVRT: gas pressure (p₁):
gas density (ρ): kB: gas pressure (p₂):
atomic mass (mₐ): PE: gas pressure (p₃):
relative atomic mass (RAM): electron velocity (vₑ):
number of atoms per molecule (N): potential energy (PE₁):

If the above calculation has been successful, all three pressures must be the same; p₁ = p₂ = p₃

For the above comparison to be valid, it is important that your input data is accurate. Accurate values for a few gases are provided in the Table below:
Whilst you may enter any density (ρ) you like in the above calculation, those values provided in the Table below are representative of their partial pressures in our atmosphere.

ρ mₐ RAM N
nitrogen 0.964387867006 2.34406687434645E-26 14.0067 2
oxygen 0.2955458711 2.67763538755423E-26 15.9999 2
argon 0.016379 6.68542793780064E-26 39.948 1
CO₂ 0.000583200354 7.36530054712563E-26 44.0095 1
neon 1.60138E-05 3.37713853400509E-26 20.1797 1
helium 9.1759899E-07 6.69848483896483E-27 4.002602 2
hydrogen 2.13296E-08 1.68682042545979E-27 1.00794 1
fluorine 3.17944463276748E-26 18.998403 2
chlorine 5.93317504452904E-26 35.453 2
bromine 1.33721947016627E-25 79.904 2
krypton 1.40238682870686E-25 83.798 1

You may either enter the RAM of a single atom, e.g. Oxygen = 15.9999 {g/mol} and the number of atoms per molecule (N=2), or; the RAM of the molecule e.g. CO₂ = 44.0095 {g/mol} and set the number of atoms per molecule (N) equal to 1.
If you enter a gas density (ρ) greater than the viscous density (ρᵥ - hover value) of the element, your calculation will be invalid because the element concerned would not be gaseous at that temperature.

## Help

This PVRT calculator is accessible from anywhere in the website using the shortcut key; "Alt" + "v".
The "Reset" button clears all calculations on the page and reinstalls default values (this button may not respond in the FireFox browser).
Reset can also be achieved by pressing the "F5" key.
Hover your cursor over the symbols for an associated description.

### PVRT

It is important to understand that p.V = n.Rᵢ.Ṯ is generally considered to be the primary method for calculating the pressure of any gas (p₁) based upon the ideal gas constant and the mole value of the gas. Any gas pressure calculated using this theory is therefore accepted as correct.

The ideal gas constant, which is used in this calculation procedure, is based upon Boltzmann's constant and Avogadro's number.

### kB

There exists an alternative formula that uses Boltzmann's constant but ignores the mole aspects of the 'p.V = n.Rᵢ.Ṯ' calculation method.
This formula (p₂ = kB.Ṯ.ρ / (mₐ.N)) should (and does) give exactly the same result.

### PE₁

The final version of this calculation method is based upon the Newton/Coulomb atomic model and applies the potential energy (PE₁ = mₑ.v₁²) in the proton-electron pairs in the atom's innermost shell (shell-1). If this formula; p₃ = PE₁/Y . ρ/(mₐ.N) gives the same result as the other two procedures, the Newton/Coulomb atomic model must be correct; and it does.
The indisputability of the Newton/Coulomb atomic model is demonstrated by the calculation for the disparate molecule CO₂, which also produces the correct result.