This calculator identifies the properties of any atom and its proton-electron pairs based solely on its atomic number and temperature.
Refer to our webpage for the atom for a detailed description of its structure and behaviour.
This Atomic calculator is accessible from anywhere in the website using the shortcut key; "Alt" + "z".
The "Reset" button clears all calculations on the page and reinstalls default values (this button may not respond in the FireFox browser).
Reset can also be achieved by pressing the "F5" key.
Hover your cursor over the symbols for an associated description.
The calculated properties tagged with '#' are for the atom in total. The other calculated properties are for the proton-electron pair(s) in the atom's outermost shell.
Note: the temperature you enter (Ṯ), is that which we measure and is the temperature of the atom's proton-electron pairs in shell-1, which is the highest temperature of all of its proton-electron pairs.
The total heat radiated by any atom is that radiated by all of its proton-electron pairs. This is why the magnitude of heat energy radiated by a kilogram of boron @ 300K will be greater than that radiated by a kilogram of uranium at the same temperature.
Atoms are collections of proton-electron pairs that were fused together under enormous pressure in the core of the universe's massive cold bodies during previous universal periods.
They were not fused in stars. We know this because atomic theory and core pressure theory have together demonstrated that atomic fusion is impossible under such temperatures and stars are insufficiently massive.
All atoms comprise collections of tritium and deuterium atoms giving them a theoretical neutronic ratio between one and two. However, at values greater than 1.6, atoms naturally split apart due to the excessive magnetic energy in their neutrons.
The practical range is; 1 < ψ < 1.6 and any value above ≈1.5 will spontaneously and continuously split two of its neutrons into their component parts; a proton and an electron for each neutron split;
if the freed proton(s) escapes its nucleus, it will be ejected as an alpha particle and its electron partner will be released as a beta particle.
if the freed proton(s) is retained within its nucleus, its neutronic energy will be released as EME (heat) and its proton-electron partnership will be restored.
Electron shells are circular and evenly spaced. Each shell contains two electrons, except the outermost shell - which may contain one or two - dependent upon the atomic number (odd or even).
Each electron is exactly the same as all the other electrons in the universe, and those removed from any atom by electrical current will always be removed from the outer shells first. Any shell valency caused by an electron being removed from an inner shell due to impact, will immediately be filled by the relocation of an outer electron. All other electrons will then migrate inwards until all valences are filled. There are no electron shell valences in any atom; all electrical charges - negative and positive - must balance.
The properties (calculations above) of any electron in any shell of any atom at the same temperature will always be identical. Therefore, if you wish to know the performance of, say an electron in the third shell of an iron atom at 300K;
simply calculate the properties of a carbon or boron atom, both of which have outer electrons orbiting in shell-3.
But if you want the properties of the iron atom, then you must modify the input data for iron atom. The calculation results will be for the iron-atom's outer shell and the atom in total (#).
Note: Newton's constant of proportionality (K) is identical for all proton-electron pairs irrespective of shell number.
The nucleus is a collection of the proton-electron partner force-centres (protons) and their neutron partners. The electrical charge generated by the proton-electron pair (e'ₙ) is discharged in the radiated EME.
Full downloadable versions of this calculator is available from this website at; Atoms.Return to the top of the page