Electrical and magnetic charges are essential converses, and mutually inclusive; they are equal and opposite, and one cannot exist without the other.

Electrical charges are polar, and shared between all particles.

Magnetic charges are non-polar, and accrue with multiple particles.

Whilst the electrical charge was recognised by Coulomb, and magnetic fields were recognised by Gilbert, it would appear that the magnetic charge has remained undiscovered until now. Magnetic charge is actually what we refer today as 'mass' (or inertia); the resistance to movement of bodies (of mass). Mass (and inertia) is actually the resistance to movement of magnetically charged particles in their universal magnetic environment.

There are only two particle types in the universe; the electron and the proton (see neutron):

Electrons carry a negative electrical charge; e⁻.

Protons carry a positive electrical charge; e⁺.

Both electrons and protons carry a magnetic charge; mₑ & mₚ respectively.

The magnitude of electrical charge in both particles is equal and opposite; ±e.

The magnitude of an electron’s magnetic charge (mₑ) is numerically equal to its electrical charge (e).

The magnitude of a proton’s magnetic charge (mₚ) is constantly (*ξₘ*) greater than that in an electron; mₚ = mₑ.*ξₘ*

There are more than 2.80059013353655E+75 proton-electron pairs in the universe (>4.68687882273808E+48 kg).

The electrical charge held by the proton varies in proportion to the electron's orbital energy; eꞌ = mₚ.RC . Ṯ/Ṯₙ. The maximum limiting electrical charge that can be held by a proton (eₙ) is neutronic; eₙ = mₚ.RC.

Note: The temperature of any proton-electron pair is calculated thus: Ṯ = PE/K_{B}ꞌ

Where; K_{B}ꞌ = Y.K_{B} and ‘PE’ is the potential energy between a proton and its orbiting electron partner.

The temperature we measure in matter is that of the highest energy proton-electron pairs in its atoms; shell 1: Ṯ₁ = PE₁/K_{B}ꞌ

The neutronic temperature - the highest possible in nature; that in the core of a bright star - is calculated thus: Ṯₙ = PEₙ/K_{B}ꞌ

Their magnetic charges remain unchanged.

Because magnetic charges accrue, magnetic force (between particles) varies proportionally with the number of particles involved.

Because electrical charges are shared, electrical force (between particles) varies inversely with the number of particles involved.

This is why the gravitational (magnetic) force between celestial bodies, that comprise massive quantities of particles, is significant, whereas the electrical force between them is negligible.

Magnetic charge force is calculated thus: Fₘ = G.m₁.m₂/R²

Electrical charge force is calculated thus: Fₑ = k.e₁.e₂/R²

Because the shared charge between any two particles is equal; Fₑ = k.e²/R²

The remaining electrical charge (eꞌ-e) forces two adjacent atoms apart. As the temperature of adjacent atoms rises, the kinetic energy of their electrons increases, increasing the electrical charge in the protons (eꞌ). When ‘eꞌ-e’ is greater than the magnetic field force holding them together, the atoms will exist as a gas. Conversely, when the magnetic field force is greater, the atoms will exist in a viscous state.

The ratio of magnetic attractive force to electrical attraction/repulsion force in a proton-electron pair is calculated thus:

φ = (G.mₚ.mₑ) / (k.e²) = 4.40742111792334E-40

This means that the electrical-charge repulsion between adjacent atoms in outer-space is 2.27E+39 times greater than their magnetic-charge attraction (gravitational). This is how we know that universal matter cannot possibly accrete from hydrogen atoms.

Fig 1. Electro-Magnetic Fields

An electro-magnetic charge orbiting another electro-magnetic charge of opposite electrical polarity will generate electro-magnetic fields (Fig 1), that together will emit EME, the polarity of which will vary between e⁻ & e⁺., and also between m⁻ & m⁺ through a single orbital cycle (Fig 2).

The magnetic field generated by the proton-electron charges are responsible for holding onto one or two neutrons (deuterium and tritium respectively).

If you force the proton and its neutron partner(s) of a proton-electron pair inside the orbital shell of another proton-electron partner, you create a different atom. But each proton, electron and neutron partnership remains in-tact - even inside an atom - due to their electrical and magnetic charges.

Fig 2. Electro-Magnetic Energy

Every force in the universe is generated by the attraction or repulsion between the electrical charges held, and fields generated, by every atomic particle; protons and electrons.

A force multiplied by the distance over which it is applied, is the energy in a body or system.

These charges are responsible for all universal - energy and forces:

kinetic,

potential (gravitational),

electrical,

magnetic,

electro-magnetic (ultra-violet, infra-red, heat, light, gamma, X-ray, micro and radio).

If we set the electrical and magnetic charge magnitudes numerically equal (e), and the units for magnetic charge as Gilberts (G), the conversion factor from mass (kg) to magnetic charge (G) is calculated thus:

γ = e/mₑ = 1.75881869180545E+11 {G per kg)

We can now apply this conversion to the two atomic particles by changing their values and units thus:

electron: mass; mₑ = 9.1093897E-31 kg to magnetic charge; mₑ = 1.60217648753E-19 G

proton: mass; mₚ = 1.67262163783E-27 kg to magnetic charge; mₚ = mₑ.*ξₘ* = 2.94183820093364E-16 G

Using the values and units as they are accepted today, Newton's gravitational constant is defined thus:

G = aₒ.c²/mN = 6.67359232004333E-11 {m³ / kg.s²}

which becomes:

M = aₒ.c² / mN.γ = 3.79436058482686E-22 {m³ / G.s²}

if we apply the above conversion factor.

And Coulomb's constant:

k = μ.c² = mₑ.Rₙ.(c/e)² = 8.98755184732666E+09 {kg.m³ / C².s²}

becomes:

ℓ = k.γ = 1.58074741826487E+21 {G.m³ / C².s²}

if we apply the above conversion factor.

Today's gravitational force between a proton and its orbiting electron at the neutronic radius (according to Newton) is calculated thus:

Fᴺ = G.mₑ.mₚ/Rₙ² = 1.28051247005732E-38 N {kg.m/s²}

and the coincident gravitational acceleration on the electron is:

**aᴺ = G.mₚ/Rₙ² = 1.40570610351353E-08 {m/s²}**

But if we change the unit of force from Newton (N) to Gilbert (Gil), we can calculate the same force thus:

Fᴳ = M.e².*ξₘ*/Rₙ² = 2.25218926742678E-27 Gil {G.m/s²}

and the coincident gravitational acceleration on the electron is:

**aᴳ = M.e. ξₘ/Rₙ² = 1.40570610351353E-08 {m/s²}**

The ratio of forces is of course; Fᴳ:Fᴺ = γ (G:kg)

We currently calculate the Coupling Ratio (φ) using mass as follows;

**φ = G.mₑ.mₚ / k.e² = 4.40742111792334E-40**

But it could now be calculated using magnetic charge as follows;

**φ = M.mₑ.mₚ / ℓ.e² = 4.40742111792334E-40**

Earth's Orbit:

Sun mass: m₁ = 1.9885E+30 kg

Earth mass: m₂ = 5.96451976771313E+24 kg

Orbital radius: R = 147095000000 m

We currently calculate the potential energy between the sun and the earth at its orbital perigee thus:

PEᴺ = -G.m₁.m₂/R = -5.38099811251204E+33 J {kg.m²/s²}

Alternatively, we could calculate it using magnetic charge & ‘M’ as follows:

Magnetic charge in our sun:

m₁ = m₁.γ = 3.4974109686551E+41 G

Magnetic charge in the earth:

m₂ = m₂.γ = 1.0490508855097E+36 G

PEᴳ = -M.m₁.m₂ / R = -9.46420006085606E+44 {G.m²/s²}

The ratio of energies is of course; PEᴳ:PEᴺ = γ (G:kg)

Every form of universal energy and related force - from atomic to celestial - has been successfully calculated using the above electrical and magnetic particle charges.

This theory, therefore, is not hypothesis, it is indisputable fact.

You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications^{(68, 69, & 70)}