We know what happens, but we don't know how.
Along with the discovery of the workings of the atom, we have also uncovered the true nature of fission; the release of neutron energy in the form of 8.19E-14 Joules of kinetic energy or 1.64E-13 Joules of heat energy, dependent upon whether or not the proton partner remains trapped within the atom's nucleus.
This event happens naturally in all universal matter other than in stars, where it occurs unnaturally.
The rate at which this occurs naturally (half-life) is dependent upon the combination of an atom's nucleic packing factor and its neutronic ratio (ζ & ψ respectively). Some half-lives are very long (billions of years) and some are very short (seconds).
The only evolution that concerns us is that associated with life, which only exists on planets in the narrow band between the moonless planets closest to their star and the gas planets furthest away. A planet's core temperature is too low to generate unnatural fission.
All atoms comprise proton-electron pairs that are attached either to one neutron (deuterium), which will last forever as such, and others that are attached to two neutrons (tritium), which will lose its second neutron due to the atom's half-life.
The more tritium elements an atom possesses the greater the incidence of neutronic decay (fission).
As all atoms comprise collections of deuterium and tritium, the neutronic ratio of any or all atoms could theoretically be anything between 1 & 2.
However, an atom's nucleic packing factor 'ζ' will determine the opportunity for adjacent neutrons to interact, causing them to split (fission).
In practice, no natural atom can hold more than 60% tritium elements (1 ≤ ψ < 1.6).
And (other than technetium - a special case) atoms that contain more than 50% tritium will continuously split neutrons. We (humans) consider these atoms to be radioactive.
But all atoms are radioactive. Every atomic tritium element is trying to lose its second neutron; i.e. return it to deuterium. So, given sufficient time, all atoms would naturally revert to a neutronic ratio of one; ψ=1
This means that every atom, in us and everywhere about us, is continuously releasing heat or alpha particles (protons) and beta particles (electrons). It is this natural release of protons that is creating atomic mutations within all forms of life; evolution. Most unfriendly mutations are attacked and killed by our antibodies. Every now and again, a beneficial mutation will occur, that will not be attacked by our natural immune systems because they are not recognised by our antibodies.
In some cases, when these mutations occur in an RNA chain, they are not only unfriendly, they also become self-replicating. These affected RNA chains are responsible for creating cancer cells. It is difficult to stop them replicating because they are using our own ribosomes to do so.
It could be argued that cancer is simply natureꞌs way of weeding out the weak (evolution); those with unsuitable genetic code. But I donꞌt believe that. I believe the faulty proteins contain atoms with the wrong number of tritium elements. I believe that if these can be identified, you simply use unnatural fission to blast out the unwanted neutrons before cancer can occur.
What we do today is attack the cancer cells once they have begun to grow in a developed lifeform. I believe it is too late by then. We should identify and remove the unwanted neutrons in the egg and sperm, and cancer cells cannot be created in the resultant lifeform.
It is interesting to note that proton bombardment is currently used to kill - or is it mutate? - cancer cells, rendering them ineffective.
I also believe it would be possible to do that now with a molecular calculator.
There is, however, just one problem that would result from this action if carried out on all humans, we would lose the ability to mutate; evolve.
You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications(69, 71 & 73)