Applications for Carbon Steels and Copper Alloys

Below is a list of engineering applications with CalQlata's suggestion for the most appropriate carbon steel and copper alloys (stainless steels will be added later). The list is not exhaustive and will be updated periodically.

Metal Uses

Application Metals (SAE Carbon Steel, Copper Alloy)
Adapters 1145
Agricultural equipment 1070, 1080, 1095
Aircraft forgings 4140
Anchors, marine 1008
Axles 1045, 2340, 2345, 3135, 3140, 3141, 4063, 4340
Battery caps C24000
Bearings, ball & roller cage 52100, C82400>C82700, C87500, C90200>91000, C94400, C94700, C54400, C61800
Bearings, ball & roller cage (high-speed) C94300
Bearings, ball & roller cage (low-speed, heavy duty) C93700, C93200>C94800, C94500
Bearings, balls & rollers 4161, 52100
Bellows C17000, C24000, C51000, C72500
Bolts and screws 1035, 2330, 4042, C19000, C22000, C26000>C27000, C34000>C35600, C61000, C65100, C74500
Bolts, anchor 1040
Bolts, connecting rods 3130
Bolts, heavy duty 4815, 4820
Bolts, studs 1035
Bolts, studs (engine) 3130
Bolts, studs (heavy duty) 4815, 4820, C28000
Bourdon tubing C17000, C43500, C51000
Brackets C87800
Brazing rod C28000
Brush holders (motors) C87800
Brushes, wire C51000>C52100
Bullet jackets C21000
Bushes C82200, C82800, C90200>90900, C94400, C95200, C54400, C61800>C62500, C67400
Cams 4615, 4620, C82400, C82500, C62300>C62500
Camshafts 1020, 1040
Chains, transmission 3135, 3140
Chains, marine 1008, 1022
Clamps C87800
Clock dials C24000, C34000
Clutch disks 1060, 1070, 1085, C51000, C67500
Clutch parts C82200
Coins, medals, placques C21000
Connecting rods 1040
Cotter pins C19000, C51000
Covers, casings and panels 1008, 1010, 1015
Crankshaft 1045, 1145, 3135, 3140, 3141
Crankshaft, diesel engine 4340
Cutlery 51335, C7450>C7820
Diaphragm C17000, C51000
Dies & forming rolls C62500
Electrical cable, flat C16500
Electrical components, brazeable and weldable C14300, C15715, C50500
Electrical conductors (high-conductivity) C10100>C11600, Gold, Silver, Copper
Electrical conductors (HT) C81300>82100, C12000>C13000
Electrical motor and switch parts C14700>C15500, C15720, C16200>C16210, C19400, C41300, C51000, C62500, C68800>C69000, C72500
Electronic components C15715
Fan blades 1020
Fire extinguishers C23000
Fittings, pipe C23000
Forgings, heavy duty 6150, C37700, C38500
Forgings, light duty 1035, 1040, 1045, C37700, C38500
Forgings, large 1036
Furnishings, interior C61500
Fuse clips & caps C17000, C21000, C42500
Gears, carburized 1320, 2317, 3115, 3120
Gears, cyanide hardened 5140
Gears, differential 4023
Gears, heavy duty 4640, 6150
Gears, ring 1045, 3115, 3120, 4119
Gears, transmission 3115, 3120, 4119, C82400, C82500, C87500, C90300>C1700, C95200>C95600, C19000, C34000, C54400, C62300
Hardware C97300>C7800, C22000, C76390
Heatsink C15720
Hinges C26000>C27000, C33500, C38500
Hose, flexible C24000, C41100, C50500
Impellers C87500, C90300, C93700>C93900
Jewellery C21000>C22600, C41300, C73500>C75400
Joints, knuckle 3141
Joints, universal 1145
Keys C78200
Key stock 1030, 2330, 3130
Levers 1030, 2330
Locks C26000>27000, C38500
Marine equipment & parts C95300>C95800, C96200, C99400>99750, C46400>C48500, C61300>C61400
Marine castings C97600, C22000
Moulds, glass-making C99300
Moulds, plastic C82400>C82700
Musical instruments C24000, C43500, C73500
Musical instruments, parts C97800
Nozzles C94700
Nuts 2330, 3130, C87800, C95300, C28000, C62400>C65500
Ornaments C97300>C97800
Pickling components C95300>C95500, C31400
Pinions 3115, 3120, 4320, C54400
Pins, transmission chain 4320, 4815, 4820, C19100, C26000>C27000
Pins, knuckle 4815, 4820
Pins, piston 3115, 3120
Plates, condenser C28000, C36500, C37000, C44300>C44500, C46400>C46700, C54400, C70400>C72200
Plates, name, instrument (e.g. clocks) C34000>C35600, C73500>C75700, C78200
Plumbing parts C26000>C27000, C33000
Pressurised castings C93700
Pressurised parts (<290°C) C92200
Propellers C95700
Propeller hubs C95800
Propellers, small C87500
Pump bodies (acid resisting) C95200, C33000
Pump, parts C82400, C82500, C95200, C62300, C67500
Radiator parts, high duty C23000, C26000>C27000
Radiator parts, low duty C26800>C27000
Rings, piston C90300>C90700, C91000
Rings, sealing C90300
Rings, snap 1060
Rivets 1008, 1010, 1015, C19400, C22000, C26000>C27000, C34000, C46400>C46700, C65100, C74500
Rocker arms C87500
Roll-pins C17000
Screw, machine and parts (conductive) C18700
Screw, machine and parts C31400, C33200, C48200>C48500, C65100
Screw, machine and parts (high-speed) C36000
Shaft, propeller 2340, 2345, 4140, C46400>C46700, C65500
Shaft, spline 1045, 1320
Shaft, transmission 4140, C67500
Sleeves C41100, C51100
Spark-plug contacts C19400
Springs, clutch 1060
Springs, coil 4063, C26000>C27000, C51000, C77000
Springs, high-conductivity C15500, C15720
Spring, contact C19400>C19500, C38500, C41500>C43400, C63800, C68800>C69000, C70400>C72500
Springs, cushion 1060
Springs, leaf 1085, 9260
Springs, oil-tempered wire 1066
Springs, seat 1095
Springs, switch C15720
Springs, valve 1060
Structural sections 1070, C61300>C61400
Tie-rods C19100, C61000, C62400
Tools, non-sparking C82400, C82500
Transmission lines (high-strength) C16200>C16210
Tubing, condenser C14200, C19400, C23000, C28000, C44300>C44500, C54400, C61300>C61400, C67500, C70400>C72200
Tubing, distillery C44300>C44500, C67500
Tubing, heat-exchanger C19200, C23000, C28000, C54400, C65100, C67500, C70400>C72200
Tubing, high-temperature, low corrosion C12200>C13000
Tubing, plumbing C23000
Turnbuckle barrels C19100, C46400>C46700
Valves C82400, C82500, C94700, C97300>97800, C64200, C67500
Valve guides C95200
Valve guides and seats (aircraft) C95500
Valve parts C90300, C54400, C64200
Valve seats C95200>C95700, C97800, C62300
Valve stems C87500, C87600, C94700, C99400, C46400>C48500, C64200, C67500
Valve stems (high-strength & corrosion resistant) C69400
Vessels and tanks C60800>C61400
Washers C40500
Washers, locking 1060, C51000
Washers, thrust 1060, C41100, C54400
Watch cases C33500, C78200
Wear guides C94700, C67400
Welding equipment C17000>C19100
Welding jaws C95300
Welding electrodes C15720, C16500
Welding, soldering and brazing torch tips C14700>C15000, C15760, C19100
Worms C95600, C62300
Wire, music 1085
Wire, spring 1045
Wire, oil-tempered spring 1055


  1. Replace C90XXX with C92XXX for machinability
  2. Replace C170XX with C172XX for non-sparking
  3. Replace C170XX and C173XX for improved machinability
  4. See CalQlata’s Metals and Copalloys databases for material properties and CalQlata’s SAE Steel Grading page for carbon steel designations

Further Reading

You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications(1, 2, 3, 12, 13, 17, 21, & 44)