• EXACT VALUE & FORMULA
• THE MATHEMATICAL LAW (calculator)
• EARTH'S INTERNAL STRUCTURE (calculator)
• DOES NOT EXIST
• NO NEED FOR A UNIFICATION THEORY

# General Help

Many of these calculators include complex formulas that have been developed over hundreds of years (although ours have not taken that long!). Whilst most formulas are both useful and interesting to those of a theoretical bent, you don't need a comprehensive understanding to apply them. However, where we feel that additional information may be of special interest or use, we provide references to relevant publications.

### Hard-Wired Data

Database information and 'help' text are both embedded in the source code in order to minimise the response times of our calculators (i.e. everything works in RAM {not ROM}).

### Help Levels (according to your needs)

All our calculators include operational, context and technical help suitable for those with a basic understanding of the relevant subject. If this facility is insufficient to enable you to solve your problem or complete your understanding, please take full advantage of the calculator-specific pages accessible from the 'Technical Help' menu.

### The 'GiGo' Principle

As with all hand written formulas, it is possible to enter any values you wish and yet still achieve an answer that, to all intent and purposes, whilst incorrect, remains appropriate for special purposes, e.g. negative values for mass or density. Many of the more experienced and gifted mathematicians manipulate formulas in this way to acquire a result that can be used out of context.

In order to accommodate this exploitation, CalQlata has adopted the "GiGo" principle which literally means; "garbage in - garbage out", for all its calculators. This means that your results ('Output Data') are only as good as the information entered ('Input Data').

As such, whilst our calculators trap 'fatal errors' they will have a go at every calculation they can issuing error messages or warnings for those in which they detect incompatible entries. You may, for example see that some of your results for a given calculation are given as an "infinity", 'NaN' (not a number) or unexpected zeros where your input data is normally considered incompatible with the formula(s) concerned, whilst others may produce acceptable results. CalQlata has adopted this approach to maximise flexibility and prevent unwanted lock-ups in the use of its calculators whilst entering data in an unusual sequence.

### Calculator Specific Help

Where input and output variables are specifically referred to in these pages they are colour coded to reflect their status. This is not the case where such variables are included in general discussion topics.

Please visit Fluid Numbers and Fatigue's Technical Help pages on this website for examples of the detailed step-by-step assistance we provide for more complicated procedures.

Together with the help pages included in each calculator, the operational and technical help provided in this website should enable you to get the most from our calculators.

### Self-Checking Calculators

Many of our calculators include an internal self-checking facility (e.g. 2ᴺᴰ Moment of Area). Where this is available, we will inform you on the calculator's dedicated website Technical Help page.

We apologise in advance for references made to calculators that have yet to be released. We are simply indicating where you will eventually find the reference information or facility.

### Maths

Over the years we have expanded numerous formulas that would be wasted gathering dust on our shelves so we have incorporated them on our site just in case somebody out there can find a use for them (menu item: 'Useful Stuff'). For example, whilst there are many sources for instructions on out how to differentiate one or two trigonometric functions, we have worked out virtually all of them ('Differentiation Trig').

We shall add to this list as time permits.

### Materials

Our unique carbon steel properties table (see Materials menu) has been included in this website because of years of frustration searching for genuine strength and hardness property ranges for these materials in sources that were either incomplete, too specific or too vague.

The first person to notify CalQlata of a genuine fault in a calculator will be issued with a corrected version free of charge. A note explaining the fault will be added to the dedicated website page for that calculator.

### Minimum System Requirements

Important Note:
All calculators bought and downloaded directly from the site are single user (license) versions that have been designed to operate on personal/privately owned computers only.
They will not operate on company machines nor can they be networked.
Those wishing to install them on company machines must contact CalQlata directly for multi-user licence versions of the calculator(s) concerned.

Full administrator and registry rights to the PC on which you are installing the calculator.

PC or Laptop with Microsoft Windows XP or later operating system

.NET Framework 4.0 Client Profile or later

The disk space and memory requirements are between 0.25k and 0.5k so most computers should easily handle these calculators

Those of you using Internet Explorer to visit this web site will find that some of its features will be enhanced if you are using version 9 (or later) and FireFox will corrupt the layout.
Please use Internet Explorer, Edge, Chrome, Opera, etc. to view this web site.

These programs do not work on Apple Mac systems

If you would purchase CalQlata's products but only in Apple Mac compatible format, could you please let us know?

### Troubleshooting

You will find the solution to all common problems concerning the purchase and installation of CalQlata programs below:

The most important thing to understand is that our contributors, both technical and administrative, provide their services free of charge in order to help indviduals (including one-man companies) compete with the analytical muscle of larger companies.
Therefore, our calculators are deliberately designed for installation on privately owned, personal PCs to which the user has full (unrestricted) administration and registry rights.

Whilst larger (than one-man) Companies may purchase our calculators, this can only be done through direct contact with CalQlata for the purchase of multi-user licenses.