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Calculator Description

# Newton's Laws of Orbital Motion

Newton is the culmination of over two years of work by one of CalQlata’s contributors to make Newton’s laws of motion available to everybody. However, in doing this work, Keith Dixon-Roche also discovered the formula and exact value for Newton’s gravitational constant (G), planetary spin theory and the fact that Newton’s laws work perfectly well for atoms, whilst classical theory probably doesn’t.

In this and other pages associated with the Newton calculator, the term satellite refers to any natural mass (m₂) such as a star, planet, moon, etc. freely orbiting a force-centre (m₁) such as a black-hole, star, planet, etc.

## Subject

Whilst Johannes Kepler originally told us that satellites always orbit in elliptical paths, Isaac Newton told us why.

Newton’s two most important constants are his universal gravitational constant ‘G’ and his motion constant ‘h’

To date, ‘G’ has been estimated and allocated units of convenience (N.kg²/m²). Today, however, its formula and exact value are known along with its correct units (m³/s²/kg) and is defaulted in Newton.

Whilst Newton’s motion constant (h) is actually a variable, it remains the same throughout any given satellite’s orbit and forms the basis as to why all the satellites (in a vacuum) should continue in their orbits ‘forever’

## Calculator

The Newton Calculator describes a satellite’s orbital shape and its dynamic properties at its perigee and its apogee along with all the arbitrary variables generated during the calculation. You can find all the formulas used in this calculator, along with their description and verification on our web page; Laws of Motion

According to Newton’s laws of motion, you may extract any given satellite from one orbit and slot it into any other orbit. It will follow the same orbital path. The Newton calculator now allows you to prove it; try slotting Jupiter into earth’s orbit, it works! You can find the properties for Jupiter as m₂ in our Laws of Motion and Spin Theory web pages.

Whilst you may enter any value for ‘G’ in Newton, the accuracy of your results will suffer unless the correct (defaulted) value is used.

This calculator also enables you to prove that dark matter is not necessary to describe the orbital path of our sun in the Milky Way galaxy and therefore does not exist. The properties of the Milky-Way’s force-centre (m₁) are included in the Technical Help page of the Newton calculator.

For help using this calculator, see Technical Help

## Newton's Laws of Orbital Motion - Options

#### Newton's Laws of Motion

Newton offers 3-Calculation Options to determine the orbital shape and dynamic properties of a satellite orbiting a force-centre; using:
1) the force-centre mass; or
2) the apogee radial distance; or
3) the constant of proportionality

You enter: and the Newton calculator will provide:
• Satellite mass
• Force-centre mass; or
Satellite apogee distance; or
Constant of proportionality
• Satellite perigee distance
• Anglular position through orbit
• Orbital period of satellite
• Newton's gravitational constant
• Force-centre mass; or
Satellite apogee distance; or
Constant of proportionality
• Orbital distance at anglular position
• Major semi-axis of orbit
• Minor semi-axis of orbit
• Orbital eccentricity
• Orbital half-parameter
• Distance from perigee to focus
• Distance from centre of ellipse to focus
• Length of orbital path
• Orbital area
• Satellite velocity
• Gravitational acceleration
• Centrifugal acceleration
• Gravitational force
• Centrifugal force on satellite
• Potential energy
• Kinetic energy in satellite
• Total energy
• Newton's constant of motion
• Satellite momentum

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