• EXACT VALUE & FORMULA
• THE MATHEMATICAL LAW (calculator)
• EARTH'S INTERNAL STRUCTURE (calculator)
• DOES NOT EXIST
• NO NEED FOR A UNIFICATION THEORY
Calculator Description

# Engineering Basics

## Subject

Engineering basics are the fundamental formulas that underpin most of the specialised calculations used to define the properties and performance of everything we see and use in our daily lives. They include: bending, torsion, tension, energy, power, flow, elasticity and thermodynamics.

Not only does every calculator produced by CalQlata make use of these formulas but Engineering Basics can be used to determine their input variables.

## Calculator

The engineering basics calculator includes the following calculation options along with a selection of calculators that may benefit from its support:

Columns
{Column Buckling, Piling, Upheaval Buckling}

Fluids
{Pipe Flow, Pipe Flow+ & Pipe Strength}

Spring Frequency
{Spring Coefficients, Mode Shapes & Spring Strength}

Motor Power
{Electrical Current plus all listed for Twisting a Bar above}

Elastic Constants
{too many to list}

Energy
{Explosions, Fluid Numbers, Fans, Elliptical Curves in conjunction with the Laws of Motion}

Capstan Theory: {Friction}

For help using this calculator see Technical Help

## Engineering Basics Calculator - Options

All calculation options in this calculator work in the same way. The input and output values are the same. You continue to enter the data you know and the engineering basics calculator will fill in the missing data as soon as it has sufficient information. i.e. you enter: the known values, and Engineering Principles will calculate: the unknown value(s)

#### BENDING (beam)

This is the well-known three-sided formula used to establish the characteristic reactions of a beam under direct bending.

You enter the known values from: and the engineering basics calculator will provide:
• Stress
• Distance from neutral axis
• Second moment of area
• Bending moment
• Young’s modulus
• The values not entered

#### TORSION (bar)

This is the well-known three-sided formula used to establish the characteristic reactions of a bar under direct torsion.

You enter the known values from: and the engineering basics calculator will provide:
• Shear stress
• Angular twist
• Polar moment of inertia
• Torque
• Bar length
• Shear modulus
• The values not entered

#### AXIAL (column)

This is the well-known three-sided formula used to establish the characteristic reactions of a column under axial load.

You enter the known values from: and the engineering basics calculator will provide:
• Young’s modulus
• Axial force
• Cross-sectional area of column
• Stress
• Strain
• The values not entered

#### INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW (Bernoulli)

Engineering Principles compares the inlet vs outlet performance of a fluid through a pipe assuming no losses.

You enter the known values from: and the engineering basics calculator will provide:
• Velocity
• Pressure
• Fluid density
• The values not entered

#### ELASTIC CONSTANTS

All solid materials have related elastic properties that describe their two and three-dimensional behaviour under stress. These properties are all used in engineering calculations to define the behaviour of elastically deformable materials.

You enter the known values from: and the engineering basics calculator will provide:
• Bulk modulus
• Shear modulus
• Young’s modulus
• Poisson’s ratio
• Stress
• Strain
• The values not entered

#### MOTOR POWER

This calculation option deals with the relationship between power/speed/torque.

You enter the known values from: and the engineering basics calculator will provide:
• Power
• Torque
• Radial speed (revs per second)
• The values not entered

#### ENERGY

Assuming no losses, the energy of an object dropped from a known height (Potential) is the same as it falls (Kinetic) and as it deforms itself and/or another object on impact (Deformation). So long as you know a little bit about the object in any of the above conditions all the unknown characteristics in all three conditions can be calculated. You need to enter about three properties (dependent upon which they are) and Engineering Principles will calculate the other four.

You enter the known values from: and the engineering basics calculator will provide:
• Potential energy
• Kinetic energy
• Deformation energy
• Mass
• Velocity
• Deformation
• Impact force
• The values not entered

#### IDEAL GAS LAW

This calculation option defines the relationship between gas pressure, temperature and volume.

You enter the known values from: and the engineering basics calculator will provide:
• Pressure
• Volume
• Temperature
• Mass
• Relative Atomic Mass
• Gas constant
• The values not entered

#### CAPSTANS

We all know that you can hold back a much heavier load with a rope or cord if you wind (or wrap) it around a tree. Capstan Theory will tell you how many times around the tree you will need to wrap it to achieve an acceptable holdback tension.

You enter the known values from: and the engineering basics calculator will provide:
• Holdback tension