# The Neutron {© 01/10/18}

This web page contains the theory of the neutron, which was established by Keith Dixon-Roche during his development of Isaac Newton's Laws of Motion and Planetary Spin.

The neutron has hitherto been considered a separate atomic particle, just like a proton and an electron.

However, it now appears to be a proton that has *swallowed* its electron when the electron had achieved an orbital velocity of the speed of light, at a temperature of 3229521.44913518 K and at an orbital radius of 2.817937953839E-15 m

This occurs when the magnetic attraction force exceeds the centrifugal force of the electron; a prediction that can be made from Newton's laws of orbital motion.

## The Mathematical Explanation

RAC = kB.Rᵢ.Qₑ = 96485.3317942156 C/mol (of electrons)

Note: Faraday's constant = 96485.3317942158 C/mol {exact}

Rest condition @ Ṯ = 1K:

Nt = 1 Nᵥ = 1.5 Np = 2.5

RAMp = Rᵢ.mp/kB = 1.00727638277235 g/mol

Note: RAMH = 1.00794 g/mol (hydrogen)

RAMₑ = Rᵢ.mₑ/kB = RAMp . mₑ/mp = 0.000548580318390698 g/mol

Rₐ = RAMₑ / Rᵢ = 15156.3563034308 J/g/K

R = Rₐ.mp = 1.38065156E-23 J/K

kB = 1.38065156E-23 J/K

kB.NA.Ln(Nt) = cp.Ln(Ṯ).RAMₑ = 3.371231032 J/K/mol

exp(2.5xLn(Ṯ)) = 1

cᵥ = Nt.Rₐ = 22734.5344551462 J/g/K

Cᵥ = mₑ.cᵥ = 2.07097734E-23 J/K

cp = cᵥ+Rₐ = 37890.8907585769 J/g/K

Cp = mp.cᵥ = 3.4516289E-23 J/K

KEₑ = kB.Ṯ.Nₚ = 3.4516289E-23 J

X = mₑ² / mₚ.kB = 3.5933271974345800E-11 K.s² / m²

Ṯ = X.v² K

Note: Ṯ = X.v²/e²; but because e is a constant, the formula has been reduce to that shown above

According to Newton’s orbital motion formula; v = √[R.g]

when electron velocity 'v' reaches the speed of light (c):

Rn = orbital radius of 1.46677550700177 x (Rn + rₑ) = 2.817937953839E-15 m

Electrostatic acceleration: gₑ = G.mp / φ.Rn² = 3.18940728807829E+31 m/s²

Ṯ = 3229521.44913518 K

The iron atom (2.8E-10m) was measured at ≈-66.44°C

The magnetic field 'B' as described by Lorentz, is actually 1/RAC, where RAC is the relative atomic charge (1.75881869180547E+11 C/kg) of an electron. And the orbital radius at which an electron and a proton combine to create a neutron may be calculated as follows:

Rn = 1E-07.e / B = 2.817937953839E-15 m

Where: e' is the elementary charge unit (1.6021764875E-19 C)

According to the 'heat-to-electron-velocity' formula this orbital radius occurs when the electron is travelling at the speed of light.

At the orbital radius; 'Rn', the attractive magnetic charge exceeds the repulsive electrical charge and the electron combines with its proton to create a neutron, which occurs when the electro-magnetic energy is equivalent to a temperature of 3229521.44913518K

Moreover, 'Rn' occurs when: KE = ½.m.c²

Note: In circular orbits; PE = -2.KE = -2 . ½.m.c² = -m.c²

The magnetic constant (μₒ), which controls this union between an electron and a proton, is referred to as;

μₒ = 1E-07 . 4π H/m,

but what exactly is 1E-07 and what is a Henry?

mₑ.Rn/e² = 1E-07 (exactly) kg.m/C2

μₒ = 4.π.Rn.mₑ/e² kg.m/C²

and;

Henry = kg.m²/C²

Verifying that 'Rn' is a real and important physical constant (that I refer to as the neutronic radius) and that it occurs when PE = m.c²

This is the rationale behind E = m.c²

Moreover, all of the above can only be determined using Newtons laws of motion and Coulomb’s electrical force. None of this is achievable with Relativity, in which mass is claimed to vary with velocity, and gravity (non-polar magnetism) is claimed to deform the orbital path.

In close proximity to other neutrons and the electro-magnetic field generated by other proton-electron pairs, within the nucleus of an atom the neutron will gradually force the neutron to split apart into an electron and a proton. The rate at which this occurs is dependent upon the size and structure of the nucleus.

A neutron therefore has no electrical charge but possesses a magnetic charge and its mass is that of a proton plus that of an electron.

It cannot be mere coincidence that Newton's and Coulomb's laws show that an electron orbiting its proton at the speed of light (c) comes within striking distance of each other, and that this occurs at a temperature less than the centre of the sun; ≈3E+06 K, or that Newton’s and Coulomb’s laws can explain all of the above clearly and accurately, but Relativity cannot.

### Further Reading

You will find further reading on this subject in reference publications^{(68, 69, & 70)}

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